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Question: 126
An administrator is tasked with preparing for a Cross vCenter migration in a stretched vSAN cluster where the virtual
machines migration will be orchestrated via VMware Site Recovery Manager.
Which action should the administrator take so the migration is successful?
A. Disable vSAN Deduplication and Compression
B. Reconfigure vCenter HA Admission control
C. Enable vCenter Single Sign-On Enhanced Linked Mode
D. Make sure that Witness traffic is on the management NI
Answer: C
Reference: https://docs.vmware.com/en/Site-Recovery-Manager/8.4/com.vmware.srm.admin.doc/GUID-B64096E8-
Question: 127
Due to the success of the recently deployed developer-only private cloud solution, a company has a new requirement
to at least double the usable capacity in their all-flash vSAN cluster.
The vSAN cluster is deployed into a co-located datacenter that is owned by a third-party hosting company. The
hosting company charges a fixed monthly cost for rack space and power consumption. The service owner has been
given a limited budget for additional hardware purchases, but not for on-going co-location costs.
The current vSAN cluster has the following configuration:
* 10 vSAN Nodes with 2 CPUs (20 cores), 512 GB RAM
* 1 Disk Group per vSAN node
- 1 x 400 GB
- 4 x 1.8 TB
* De-duplication and Compression is enabled.
* vSAN Capacity is currently:
- Total: 72 TB
- Usable: ~40 TB (FTT1/RAID1) and ~60 TB (FTT1/RAID5).
As a result of any action taken, the service owner would like to ensure that overall availability of the vSAN cluster is
Which two recommendations meet the requirement to increase capacity while maintaining service availability?
(Choose two.)
A. Install an additional 400 GB SSD and 4 x 1.8 TB SSDs per vSAN node.
B. Update the existing Disk Group, and claim the newly installed drives for each node.
C. Create a new Disk Group, and claim the newly installed cache and capacity SSD drives for each node.
D. Install an additional 3 x 1.8 TB SSDs per vSAN node.
E. Replace existing SSDs with an 800 GB SSD and 4 x 3.8 TB SSDs per vSAN node.
Answer: A,C
Question: 128
An administrator is setting up vSAN file services on a vSAN cluster.
Which two security policies on the distributed port groups are automatically enabled in the process? (Choose two.)
A. Forged Transmits
B. Promiscuous Mode
C. DVFiltering
D. Jumbo Frames
E. MacLearning
Answer: A,B
Reference: https://www.yellow-bricks.com/2020/04/15/vsan-file-services-considerations/
Question: 129
An architect is working with an All-Flash vSAN configuration and will be using the Flash Caching Devices in vSAN.
Which requirement is specifically needed for these devices?
A. Write endurance
C. Read endurance
D. Capacity
Answer: A
Reference: https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-vSphere/7.0/com.vmware.vsphere.vsan-planning.doc/GUID-
Question: 130
Which statement accurately describes the result when proper VM Storage Policy Affinity Rules on a stretched vSAN
cluster are set?
A. When a site is disconnected, the VM will lose access to its VMD
B. When a site is disconnected, the VM will continue to have access to its VMD
C. Bandwidth is unnecessarily sent across the inter-site link.
D. Proper policies result in higher inter-site bandwidth utilization.
Answer: A
Question: 131
During a maintenance action on a vSAN node, a vSAN administrator noticed that the default repair delay time is about
to be reached.
Which two commands must be run to extend the time? (Choose two.)
A. /etc/init.d/vsanmgmtd restart
B. esxcli system settings advanced set -o /VSAN/ClomRepairDelay -i 50
C. esxcli system settings advanced set -o /VSAN/ClomRepairDelay -i 80
D. /etc/init.d/clomd restart
E. /etc/init.d/vsanobserver restart
Answer: A,C,D
Question: 132
An administrator wants to enable encryption on an existing vSAN cluster that already contains virtual machines.
Which additional step should the administrator take to ensure no data is lost during the encryption process?
A. Select Erase disks before use check box when enabling encryption on a vSAN cluster.
B. Make vCenter Server trust the KMS, either by trusting the KMS or by uploading a KMS certificate.
C. Ensure that the vSAN Encryption is enabled by default on the existing cluster to encrypt old and new data.
D. Disable vSphere Distributed Resources Schedule (DRS) on the vSAN cluster.
Answer: B
Reference: https://core.vmware.com/resource/vsan-data-rest-encryption#sec7014-sub2
Question: 133
Upon investigating a workload performance issue, a vSAN administrator observed a high backend IOPs on a vSAN
Which two causes explain this behavior? (Choose two.)
A. The cluster DRS threshold has been set to Aggressive.
B. There is a vSAN node failure.
C. The vSAN Resync throttling is enabled.
D. The object repair timer value has been increased.
E. The vSAN policy protection level has changed from FTT=0 to FTT=1.
Answer: A,B
Reference: https://core.vmware.com/resource/troubleshooting-vsan-performance#_Toc536646878
Question: 134
A customer has upgraded to vSAN 7, but there is still an existing legacy host which must be removed from the vSAN
Which three steps must an administrator take to successfully remove this host from the vSAN cluster? (Choose three.)
A. Place the host in maintenance mode with Ensure Accessibility
B. Disconnect from vCenter Server
C. Place the host in maintenance mode with Full Data migration
D. Place the host in maintenance mode with no data migration
E. Remove from vSAN cluster
F. Delete the disk group(s) on the legacy host
Answer: A,C,E,F
Reference: http://www.vexpertconsultancy.com/2019/06/step-by-step-remove-a-node-permanently-from-a-vsan-
Question: 135
An architect is working with vSAN and setting the fault domains to support FTT=1.
How many fault domains will be needed?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 1
Answer: B
Reference: https://docs.vmware.com/en/VMware-vSphere/7.0/com.vmware.vsphere.vsan-planning.doc/GUID-
Question: 136
A company hosts a vSAN 7 stretched cluster for all development workloads. The original sizing of a maximum of 250
concurrent workloads in the vSAN cluster is no longer sufficient and needs to increase to at least 500 concurrent
workloads within the next six months.
To meet this demand, the original 8-node (4-4-1) cluster has recently been expanded to 16 nodes (8-8-1).
Which three additional steps should the administrator take to support the current growth plans while minimizing the
amount of resources required at the witness site? (Choose three.)
A. Add the new vSAN witness appliance to vCenter Server.
B. Deploy a new large vSAN witness appliance at the witness site.
C. Configure the vSAN stretched cluster to use the new vSAN witness.
D. Deploy a new extra large vSAN witness appliance at the witness site.
E. Upgrade the vSAN stretched cluster to vSAN 7.0 U1.
F. Configure the new vSAN witness as a shared witness appliance.
Answer: A,B,C
Question: 137
An administrator is planning to deploy workloads on a six node vSAN cluster, and all nodes are distributed equally
across three racks.
Which action is required to ensure that the workload VMs remain compliant with the default vSAN policy after a
complete rack failure?
A. Add an additional rack with two hosts, and configure vSAN with four fault domains and FTT=1 (erasure coding).
B. Add two additional hosts per rack, and configure vSAN with three fault domains and FTT=1.
C. Add an additional host per rack, and configure vSAN with three fault domains and FTT=2.
D. Add an additional rack with two hosts, and configure vSAN with four fault domains and FTT=1 (mirroring).
Answer: D

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“We are creating a partner-led, profit-driven, cloud-smart ecosystem. What that means is it’s really about working with our partners across what we’re finding needs to be a very interconnected ecosystem. This notion of customer control or account control really doesn’t exist as much anymore,” says VMware Channel Chief Sandy Hogan in an interview with CRN.


VMware’s global channel chief, Sandy Hogan, said the “magnitude of disruption” happening in today’s IT world is causing VMware to change the way it works with channel partners, paving the way for better partnerships in the new multi-cloud world.

“For 2022, I almost call our internal theme ‘change the game’ because that’s how significant it’s going to be this year for us,” said Hogan, VMware’s senior vice president of the worldwide partner and commercial organization, in an interview with CRN. “We are creating a partner-led, profit-driven, cloud-smart ecosystem. What that means is it’s really about working with our partners across what we’re finding needs to be a very interconnected ecosystem. This notion of customer control or account control really doesn’t exist as much anymore.”

There are three fundamental focus areas for VMware’s channel organization in its new fiscal year 2023 as the company seeks to become the multi-cloud software leader: redefining partner profitability, delivering customer outcomes and creating an unrivaled partner experience.

“Providing an unrivaled partner experience is at the forefront of everything for us. That’s the core piece to partner profitability: efficiency, automation and effectiveness. VMware has been really middle of the road there in the past, and we’ve had challenges and we’re bringing it up a notch and really taking it to an unrivaled experience,” she said.

[Related: 5 Ways VMware Is ‘Evolving’ Partner Profitability In 2022]

To free up partners to drive profitability, VMware is implementing and investing more in automation as well as some new visibility tools such as estimators and profitability models that help partners evaluate at the deal level.

Bob Keblusek, chief innovation and technology officer at fast-growing Sentinel Technologies, a Downers Grove, Ill.-based VMware partner, said he likes the path Hogan is creating for the channel to drive more profitability.

“Profitability with VMware has been an issue in the past, but we hope that we can find new paths to profit with some of the new programs and a continued focus on MSP and MSSP offerings. Sandy specifically called out a focus on profitability with the program direction, and recognizing there is a need to improve it will hopefully drive change through the program with more partner focus,” said Keblusek. “We are more excited now than we have been in years about the direction and how it aligns with our own direction.”

Delivering Customer Success

Another major channel focus for VMware’s Hogan in fiscal year 2023 is delivering customer outcomes.

“That’s everything from how we co-create solutions, it’s the launching of the Customer Success Competency that is now built within the portfolio, and the partner-to-partner ecosystem that we’re really driving,” she said.

This falls in line with how many top VMware partners are creating Customer Success practices of their own.

Sentinel Technologies continues to invest in its Customer Success Management teams, driven by customer outcomes and experience. “We’re continuing to drive measurable customer success like with our Fortis by Sentinel Security Score where we run workshops, measure customers’ security maturity across the NIST Cyber Security model, and then remeasure repeatedly as we execute on a joint success plan,” said Keblusek.

‘Redefining’ Partner Profitability

The third piece to VMware’s channel strategy this year is “redefining” partners’ profitability journey.

“Because they’re creating more of these complex services, we’re actually seeing our best partners are two times to three times more profitable when they have invested in these types of new services offerings and, in particular, around customer success,” said Hogan. “We’re looking at creating new ways for our partners to develop MSP offerings and being able to publish those offerings in marketplaces so we now create that multiplier effect.”

Keblusek said he likes Hogan’s emphasis on partner-led in VMware’s channel strategy this year. “In reality, we enjoy working with our best partners and winning together but also working to ensure the customer is realizing the outcomes they expect from our vendors’ product and our services. Teaming is important for us, but when the vendor is leading the opportunity, it can be very hard to lead—especially if they aren’t sensitive to the partner profitability, it usually makes teaming very difficult,” he said. “So I like the direction VMware is taking.”

The channel changes in VMware’s new fiscal year 2023, which began this week, is based around how solution providers are creating new business models in a multi-cloud world. Hogan said over half of VMware’s channel partners are now executing on two or more types of business models.

“So the fundamental shift in direction for us will be around aligning to partner business models, meaning the more business models a partner has, they will have ease and flexibility in being able to build new practices, very quickly be able to see and apply that to their tiering status, and be able to get more enablement across all of those,” said Hogan. “So we’re moving from bucket-sizing partners in a certain type to really evolving them and enabling them to create more competencies. It’s all around accelerating their ability to build unique IP and services and differentiation that will drive more profitability for them.”

This will be VMware’s first full fiscal year as a stand-alone company following its spin-off from Dell Technologies in November.

“The future is bright,” said Hogan. “We are incredibly excited.”

Tue, 01 Feb 2022 02:15:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/virtualization/vmware-s-plan-to-change-the-game-for-partners-in-2022
VMware Denies Spin-Off Plan, But Experts Say Idea Has Merit

"The speculation about EMC and VMware’s commitment to Cloud Foundry and Greenplum businesses [is] unfounded," VMware said Tuesday in a memo to global spokespeople, which was obtained by CRN "VMware and EMC are very committed to these efforts and are continuing to aggressively invest in their success and long-term contribution to the portfolio."

What could EMC and VMware gain from such a spin-off? With a whittled-down purview of big data and cloud infrastructure -- along with Project Rubicon, EMC and VMware's infrastructure-as-a-service joint venture -- a spun-off company would be more nimble than VMware when it comes to competing with established cloud giants, according to industry watchers.

"The theory is that a standalone cloud, plus big-data-focused business, would be better equipped to battle Amazon, Microsoft and Google," Jason Maynard, senior analyst with Wells Fargo Securities, said Monday in a note to clients. "This new business wouldn't be under the same operating margin constraints if it was private and separate from the VMware P&L."

[Related: VMware Calls Cloud Foundry, Greenplum Spin-Off Rumor 'Unfounded' ]

One VMware partner, who requested anonymity, suspects VMware and EMC are putting the spin-off plan on hold until the dust settles from this week's unexpected management changes. Effective Sept. 1, Pat Gelsinger will be taking over for Paul Maritz as VMware CEO, with Maritz moving to EMC to take the newly created role of chief strategist.

In any event, the source told CRN he isn't sure what to make of the Cloud Foundry and Greenplum spin-off plans, which were first reported by GigaOm on Monday.

"I don’t know if it’s a good or bad thing. I thought spinning them off would be good in order to create some autonomy, but depending on how they structure moving forward they could be better off keeping it internal," said the source. "I would bet [the spin-off] resurfaces in three to six months."

There is also speculation that EMC, which acquired VMware in 2003 and owns around 80 percent of its shares, may acquire the rest of VMware and then spin out its cloud and big data assets into a separate company. VMware currently sports a market capitalization of $39.6 billion, compared to EMC's 53.5 billion.

The thinking here, according to Maynard of Wells Fargo Securities, is that a privately held spin-off would have more sales and development flexibility by not being beholden to Wall Street.

"Just as VMware needed autonomy from EMC to operate in its early days, we believe the same argument is that the VMware cloud business needs to be free from the limitations of a hypervisor," Maynard said in the note to clients.

VMware may provide more details on the spin-off in its second quarter earnings call next Monday, or at its VMworld conference, which is being held in San Francisco from Aug. 27-31, according to the GigaOm report.

Sat, 09 Dec 2023 10:15:00 -0600 text/html https://www.crn.com/news/virtualization/240004058/vmware-denies-spin-off-plan-but-experts-say-idea-has-merit
VMware Customers Cautious after Recent Broadcom Actions

Broadcom, under the leadership of CEO Hock E. Tan, recently closed its $69B acquisition of VMware. Post-acquisition, Broadcom is moving quickly in undertaking several critical initiatives with VMware that, while likely beneficial to Broadcom shareholders over the long term, are causing uncertainty among many VMware customers.

Transition to Subscription Model

One of Broadcom’s primary strategies to drive revenue growth is shifting VMware's business model from a perpetual license to a subscription-based one. This change aims to provide more predictable and stable revenue streams and aligns with the broader industry trend towards subscription services.

The move, as described by Tom Krause, president of the Broadcom Software Group, during the company’s most recent earnings call, is central to Broadcom’s plan to boost VMware’s contribution to its pro forma EBITDA to approximately $8.5 billion within three years, a considerable increase from VMware’s current production of about $4.7 billion. The emphasis on subscriptions is a key component of this ambitious growth target.

Broadcom's move to subscription models could lead to slower short-term growth for VMware and necessitate restructuring contracts from perpetual to subscription. VMware's strategy includes a trajectory of accelerated growth. The move to higher-value software stacks and subscription sales is expected to drive revenue growth over the next three years.

This transition could also affect VMware's customer relationships, as customers may push back against the shift to subscriptions, which are generally perceived as more expensive than perpetual licenses. VMware's expansion beyond infrastructure management with products like Tanzu could face hurdles if customers pause or reconsider their investments amid these changes.

Selling off Desktop & Carbon Black

During its earnings call, the company revealed plans to divest VMware's end-user computing portfolio and its Carbon Black security software unit. This strategic move aligns with Broadcom's stated intent to concentrate VMware's resources and efforts on creating global private and hybrid cloud environments tailored for large enterprises.

The end-user computing portfolio, encompassing desktop virtualization, application publishing, and mobile device management, alongside Carbon Black, a security software unit, are identified as non-core assets and are set to be separated from VMware's main business.

Broadcom expressed a commitment to finding suitable buyers for these units, ensuring they find "good homes," considering that many of their customers overlap with those of VMware's core products. This decision reflects Broadcom's broader strategy to refine VMware's product offerings and focus on areas that align with its vision of developing high-value cloud infrastructure solutions for global enterprises.

The company said that the moves are essential to redirect VMware's efforts towards its primary business of creating private and hybrid cloud environments, which is crucial for large enterprise customers worldwide.


Just days after it closed its acquisition, news emerged that Broadcom is set to lay off at least 2,837 VMware employees. This includes a substantial number at its Palo Alto campus in California, accounting for 1,267 employees, and 577 at its Austin facility.

It's important to note that the actual number of layoffs could exceed these figures since not all layoffs must be reported through WARN notices. The total workforce of VMware globally is around 38,300 employees.

The layoffs are officially attributed to "economic" reasons, although Broadcom has not provided further specifics or justifications. Despite these layoffs, VMware remains a central piece in Broadcom's strategy for its enterprise software segment.

Analyst’s Take

You can look at a company from the perspective of the customer or the stockholder. I’m not a financial analyst, so I’m going to interpret Broadcom’s actions with a view of how those actions might impact an IT organization; after all, the IT practitioner is most directly impacted.

Broadcom's acquisition of VMware represents a strategic pivot that underscores the semiconductor giant's intensified focus on enterprise software. Transitioning VMware towards subscription models is a savvy move that aligns with broader market trends. But this shift may test customer loyalty, as subscription models often imply higher costs over time than perpetual licenses.

The decision to divest VMware's end-user computing and Carbon Black units clearly indicates that Broadcom seeks to sharpen VMware's focus on its core competencies in cloud environments. Such divestitures could streamline operations while also raising questions about future innovation and support for VMware's broader product suite.

Layoffs following the acquisition, while delivering operational cost savings, may have a broader impact on VMware’s innovation trajectory and customer service capabilities. This reduction in force, ostensibly for economic reasons, could introduce risks related to execution and market perception.

Predicting how Broadcom's moves will impact VMware products and services over the long term is impossible. The swiftness with which Broadcom instituted layoffs and product divestitures raises questions about how it will guide VMware forward.

As in any period of uncertainty involving technologies fundamental to critical IT infrastructure, IT organizations are well-advised to comprehensively analyze the risks involved before committing to any significant VMware deployment or renewing long-term license agreements. IT buyers should look to mitigate risks with a dual-vendor approach where feasible.

Many VMware customers are already adopting alternative solutions. Nutanix, VMware’s closest competitor, revealed record growth in its most recent earnings. While much of Nutanix’s growth was driven by its own strategic initiatives, CEO Rajiv Ramaswami acknowledged that the company did “close some additional deals” explicitly because of uncertainty about how the acquisition will unfold.

With the industry watching, Broadcom's stewardship of VMware in the coming fiscal year will be a critical test of its strategic vision for enterprise software dominance. While Broadcom is clearly focused on getting the financial aspects of the acquisition quickly under control, how the company will deliver long-term value to its VMware customers will become clearer.

Until there's clarity, however, IT organizations should continue to act with caution. Mitigating risk, after all, is the number one job for enterprise IT.

Disclosure: Steve McDowell is an industry analyst, and NAND Research an industry analyst firm, that engages in, or has engaged in, research, analysis, and advisory services with many technology companies, which may include those mentioned in this article. Mr. McDowell does not hold any equity positions with any company mentioned in this article.

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 11:17:00 -0600 Steve McDowell en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevemcdowell/2023/12/10/vmware-customers-cautious-after-recent-broadcom-actions/
Broadcom ends VMware perpetual license sales, testing customers and partners
The logo of American cloud computing and virtualization technology company VMware is seen at the Mobile World Congress (MWC), the telecom industry's biggest annual gathering, in Barcelona on March 2, 2023.

Broadcom has moved forward with plans to transition VMware, a virtualization and cloud computing company, into a subscription-based business. As of December 11, it no longer sells perpetual licenses with VMware products. VMware, whose $61 billion acquisition by Broadcom closed in November, also announced on Monday that it will no longer sell support and subscription (SnS) for VMware products with perpetual licenses. Moving forward, VMware will only offer term licenses or subscriptions, according to its VMware blog post.

VMware customers with perpetual licenses and active support contracts can continue using them. VMware "will continue to provide support as defined in contractual commitments," Krish Prasad, senior vice president and general manager for VMware's Cloud Foundation Division, wrote. But when customers' SnS terms end, they won't have any support.

Broadcom hopes this will force customers into subscriptions, and it's offering "upgrade pricing incentives" that weren't detailed in the blog for customers who switch from perpetual licensing to a subscription.

These are the products affected, per Prasad's blog:

  • VMware Aria Automation
  • VMware Aria Suite
  • VMware Aria Operations
  • VMware Aria Operations for Logs
  • VMware Aria Operations for Networks
  • VMware Aria Universal
  • VMware Cloud Foundation
  • VMware HCX
  • VMware NSX
  • VMware Site Recovery Manager
  • VMware vCloud Suite
  • VMware vSAN
  • VMware vSphere

Subscription-based future

Broadcom is looking to grow VMware's EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization) from about $4.7 billion to about $8.5 billion in three years, largely through shifting the company's business model to subscriptions, Tom Krause, president of the Broadcom Software Group, said during a December 7 earnings call, per Forbes.

"This shift is the natural next step in our multi-year strategy to make it easier for customers to consume both our existing offerings and new innovations. VMware believes that a subscription model supports our customers with the innovation and flexibility they need as they undertake their digital transformations," VMware's blog said.

With changes effective immediately upon announcement, the news might sound abrupt. However, in May, soon after announcing its plans to acquire VMware, Broadcom CEO Hock Tan signaled a “rapid transition” to subscriptions.

At the time, Tan pointed to the importance of maintaining current VMware customers' happiness, as well as leveraging the VMware sales team already in place. However, after less than a month of the deal's close, reports point to concern among VMWare customers and partners.

Customer and partner concerns

VMware's blog said "the industry has already embraced subscription as the standard for cloud consumption." For years, software and even hardware vendors and investors have been pushing IT solution provider partners and customers toward recurring revenue models. However, VMware built much of its business on the perpetual license model. As noted by The Stack, VMware in February noted that perpetual licensing was the company's "most renowned model."

VMware's blog this week listed "continuous innovation" and "faster time to value" as customer benefits for subscription models but didn't detail how it came to those conclusions.

"Predictable investments" is also listed, but it's hard to imagine a more predictable expense than paying for something once and having supported access to it indefinitely (assuming you continue paying any support costs). Now, VMware and its partners will be left convincing customers that their finances can afford a new monthly expense for something they thought was paid for. For Broadcom, though, it's easier to see the benefits of turning VMware into more of a reliable and recurring revenue stream.

Additionally, Broadcom's layoffs of at least 2,837 VMware employees have brought uncertainty to the VMware brand. A CRN report in late November pointed to VMware partners hearing customer concern about potential price raises and a lack of support. C.R. Howdyshell, CEO of Advizex, which reportedly made $30 million in VMware-tied revenue in 2022, told the publication that partners and customers were experiencing "significant concern and chaos” around VMware sales. Another channel partner noted to CRN the layoff of a close VMware sales contact.

But Broadcom has made it clear that it wants to "complete the transition of all VMware by Broadcom solutions to subscription licenses," per Prasad's blog.

The company hopes to convince skeptical channel partners that they'll see the way, too. VMware, like many tech companies urging subscription models, pointed to "many partners" having success with subscription models already and "opportunity for partners to engage more strategically with customers and deliver higher-value services that drive customer success."

However, because there's no immediate customer benefit to the end of perpetual licenses, those impacted by VMware's change in business strategy have to assess how much they're willing to pay to access VMware products moving forward.

Tue, 12 Dec 2023 00:04:00 -0600 Scharon Harding en-us text/html https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2023/12/broadcom-ends-vmware-perpetual-license-sales-testing-customers-and-partners/
Profit-Sharing Plan: What It Is and How It Works, With Examples

What Is a Profit-Sharing Plan?

A profit-sharing plan is a retirement plan that gives employees a share in the profits of a company. Under this type of plan, also known as a deferred profit-sharing plan (DPSP), an employee receives a percentage of a company’s profits based on its quarterly or annual earnings. A profit-sharing plan is a great way for a business to give its employees a sense of ownership in the company, but there are typically restrictions as to when and how a person can withdraw these funds without penalties.

Key Takeaways

  • A profit-sharing plan gives employees a share in their company’s profits based on its quarterly or annual earnings.
  • It is up to the company to decide how much of its profits it wishes to share.
  • Contributions to a profit-sharing plan are made by the company only; employees cannot make them, too.

Understanding Profit-Sharing Plans

So how does profit sharing work? Well, to start, a profit-sharing plan is any retirement plan that accepts discretionary employer contributions. This means a retirement plan with employee contributions, such as a 401(k) or something similar, is not a profit-sharing plan, because of the personal contributions.

Because employers set up profit-sharing plans, businesses decide how much they want to allocate to each employee. A company that offers a profit-sharing plan adjusts it as needed, sometimes making zero contributions in some years. In the years when it makes contributions, however, the company must come up with a set formula for profit allocation.

The most common way for a business to determine the allocation of a profit-sharing plan is through the comp-to-comp method. Using this calculation, an employer first calculates the sum total of all of its employees’ compensation. Then, to determine what percentage of the profit-sharing plan, an employee is entitled to, the company divides each employee’s annual compensation by that total. To arrive at the amount due to the employee, that percentage is multiplied by the amount of total profits being shared.

The most frequently used formula for a company to determine a profit-sharing allocation is called the “comp-to-comp method.”

Example of a Profit-Sharing Plan

Let’s assume a business with only two employees uses a comp-to-comp method for profit sharing. In this case, employee A earns $50,000 a year, and employee B earns $100,000 a year. If the business owner shares 10% of the annual profits and the business earns $100,000 in a fiscal year, the company would allocate profit share as follows:

  • Employee A = ($100,000 X 0.10) X ($50,000 / $150,000), or $3,333.33
  • Employee B = ($100,000 X 0.10) X ($100,000 / $150,000), or $6,666.67


The contribution limit for a company sharing profits with an employee for 2023 and $73,500 including catch-up contributions for those 50 or over during the year.

Requirements for a Profit-Sharing Plan

A profit-sharing plan is available for a business of any size, and a company can establish one even if it already has other retirement plans. Further, a company has a lot of flexibility in how it can implement a profit-sharing plan. As with a 401(k) plan, an employer has full discretion over how and when it makes contributions. However, all companies have to prove that a profit-sharing plan does not discriminate in favor of highly compensated employees.

As of 2023, the contribution limit for a company sharing its profits may not exceed the lesser of 100% of your compensation or $66,000. This limit increases to $73,500 for 2023 if you include catch-up contributions. In addition, the amount of an employee’s salary that can be considered for a profit-sharing plan is limited, in 2023 to $330,000.

To implement a profit-sharing plan, all businesses must fill out an Internal Revenue Service Form 5500 and disclose all participants of the plan. Early withdrawals, just as with other retirement plans, are subject to penalties, though with certain exceptions.

Is a Profit-Sharing Plan the Same As a 401(k)?

No, a profit-sharing plan is not the same thing as a 401(k). With a profit-sharing plan, a company gives employees a portion of the profit based on quarterly or annual earnings. With a 401(k), employees are making personal contributions. In some cases, a company will partially match an employee's 401(k) contribution.

What Are the Different Types of Profit-Sharing Plans?

With a cash plan, employees are given either cash or stock on a regular basis, such as quarterly or annually. The payouts are quick, relative to a retirement plan, but they are also taxed as regular income. A deferred plan sees profits set aside for a later date, usually when the employee retires. The employee is also not taxed until retirement. Some plans combine elements of both a cash and a deferred plan.

How Do Employers Determine Contribution Amounts to a Profit-Sharing Plan?

Employers typically use one of two methods to determine contribution amounts. With a comp-to-comp method, the total amount of compensation given to all employees is calculated. Next, each employee's compensation is divided by the total compensation, yielding a percentage that establishes each employee's portion of the profit. The higher an employee's salary, the greater the percentage of the profits that the person receives. Less commonly, a company may give the same percentage of profits to every employee, regardless of that employee's salary. 

The Bottom Line

A profit-sharing plan is a way for employers to provide employees with a portion of the business's profits, based on quarterly or annual earnings. Contributions are given out on a regular basis, or are put into a fund that is made available at a later time, such as when the employee retires.

A profit-sharing plan is funded entirely by the employer, and is therefore different from a 401(k), which is primarily funded by the employee. Profit-sharing plans are generally seen as a meaningful way to motivate employees, by directly connecting the company's success to the employees' increased compensation.

Tue, 18 Jul 2023 19:35:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/profitsharingplan.asp
Cafeteria Plan: Definition and Typical Options for Employees

What Is a Cafeteria Plan?

A cafeteria plan is an employee benefit plan that allows staff to choose from a variety of pre-tax benefits. You can contribute a portion of your gross income before any taxes are calculated and deducted. Plans normally include options such as insurance benefits and benefits that help with various life events such as adoption. A cafeteria plan is also referred to as a flexible benefits plan or Section 125 plan.

Key Takeaways

  • Cafeteria plans are flexible benefits plans that allow employees to choose from a variety of benefits.
  • Contributions to a cafeteria plan are made pre-tax, lowering your total taxable income and reducing income, Medicare, and Social security taxes.
  • Popular options include insurance benefits, retirement plans, and benefits that help with life events such as adoption.
  • Cafeteria plans can be more complex and require more time to administer than other benefits plans.

How Cafeteria Plans Work

A cafeteria plan gets its name from a cafeteria but has nothing to do with food. Just as individuals make food selections in a cafeteria, employees can choose the benefits of their choice before payroll taxes are calculated from a pool of options offered by their employers. These plans become more useful as diversity within workforces continues to grow and employees seek personalized benefits that are tailored to their needs.

Cafeteria plan selections include insurance options, such as health savings accounts (HSAs), group term life insurance, and disability insurance. Other popular selections include adoption assistance plans, flexible spending accounts, and cash benefits.

Flexible plan selections allow employees to tailor a cafeteria plan to their specific needs. For example, the best selection for an employee retiring may be able to make contributions to his or her 401(k) plan, while an employee with a large family may be better suited to a health plan with broad coverage.

Section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) specifies that cafeteria plans are exempt from the calculation of gross income for federal income tax purposes. No federal or Social Security taxes are deducted. However, some benefits, such as group life insurance benefits that exceed $50,000 or adoption assistance benefits, require employers to withhold both Social Security and Medicare taxes.

Special Considerations

Employees must estimate how much money they are going to contribute to their cafeteria plan before the tax year begins. The elected amount of money is divided by the number of payroll periods and deducted from each paycheck for the duration of the plan.

Funds allocated but not spent by the employee were forfeited at the end of the year. For instance, John forfeited $500 if he only spent $1,500 of the $2,000 he allocated. Changes were made to allow employees to roll over up to $500 of unused funds from one year into the following year.

The individualized setup of cafeteria plans makes them more complex and time-consuming to administer. Employers must maintain constant communication with each employee about changes in the cost of benefits, their coverage, and their use of benefits.

Employees' changing circumstances may result in continual administration. This can partly be rectified by only allowing benefits to be changed periodically. For example, your company may only allow you to change your cafeteria plan benefits once a year.

If you use the full benefit of your plan but leave the company before you have paid your full yearly contribution, your employer incurs a loss.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Cafeteria Plans


One of the main benefits of a cafeteria plan is the fact that it lowers your tax liability. By making pre-tax contributions to the plan, you reduce your gross income. Payroll taxes are deducted based on gross income, so the lower it is, the less tax you pay.

Employers can choose from both nontaxable and taxable benefits under cafeteria plans. Nontaxable benefits such as insurance options and retirement contributions are considered nontaxable options. These allow the employee to contribute to these plans without incurring any tax penalties—a major benefit and advantage for an employee's bottom line.


There are drawbacks to cafeteria plans. According to the IRS, plan holders "must be permitted to choose among at least one taxable benefit (such as cash) and one qualified benefit." This means that the taxable benefit will trigger a tax liability for the tax year on the amount of the taxable benefit received.

Another drawback to cafeteria plans is their complexity. Because plans are not standard from employee to employee, they can take a lot of time to maintain and administer. This can increase costs for employers.

Employees who exceed their allocated spending amount pay a partial premium to their employer. So if Emma spends $1,000 over her allocated contribution, she pays a portion of that amount herself.

Cafeteria Plans and Flexible Spending Accounts (FSAs)

The rules for a flexible spending account (FSA) differ slightly from the "use it or lose it" rules that apply to other cafeteria plan benefits. Employers are allowed to establish a grace period for their FSA, or extra time beyond the end of the year. This allows you to spend the money from your FSA so you don't lose the funds. Alternatively, employers can offer unused contributions to carry over into the following year's plan.

Cafeteria plans must also establish a limit for the size of contributions that you can make to an FSA that is part of a cafeteria plan. If there is no limit, the FSA isn't considered part of a cafeteria plan, and all the benefits included in the plan are considered part of your taxable income. In 2023, this limit is $3,050. This limit increases to $3,200 in 2024.

What Is Covered Under a Cafeteria Plan?

Because employees can select their own benefits from a cafeteria plan, what is covered will be different for each person. What you choose from a cafeteria plan will depend on your personal needs, any family or children you may have who also need to be covered, and how close you are to retirement. Popular choices include things like a 401(k), life insurance, health savings account, disability insurance, adoption assistance, and more.

Who Is Not Eligible for a Cafeteria Plan?

Cafeteria plans are for employees. If you are self-employed, you are not considered an employee and are not eligible for a cafeteria plan, whether it is set up by you or another person.

How Does a Cafeteria Plan Impact Taxes?

Your contributions to a cafeteria plan are withheld from your paycheck before you pay taxes. This means that a cafeteria plan reduces your taxable income. You will pay less in federal income tax, Medicare, and Social Security taxes.

The Bottom Line

Cafeteria plans allow employees to choose their benefits from a pool of options. These options can include things like 401(k)s, HSAs, FSAs, life insurance, disability insurance, adoption assistance, cash benefits, and more.

Employees estimate how much they want to contribute to the cafeteria plan before the beginning of the tax year. This amount is divided by the number of payroll periods and subtracted from each paycheck. The money that is subtracted is pre-tax, meaning employees don't have to pay tax on it. But in most cases, if they don't use the money set aside before the end of the year, it is forfeited.

Thu, 08 Oct 2015 02:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cafeteriaplan.asp
Plan for specialist fire crew for city

FIRE chiefs have approved plans to recruit a new crew for a Sunderland fire station.

The proposals, which will initially run as a pilot scheme, will see a dedicated team appointed to run the aerial ladder platform (ALP) based at Marley Park Community Fire Station.

The 2017 Grenfell Tower fire, which caused 72 deaths, has been cited among the reasons for the change, which it is hoped will ensure specialist equipment gets to blazes faster.

“Had we not had to make [previous] cuts we had to make, this may not have been something we would have brought to the authority,” said Peter Heath, assistant chief fire officer (ACFO) at Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Service (TWFRS).

“The decision at the time was sound, but times have changed.

“The impact of Grenfell Tower and a number of other fires in tall buildings has brought into focus the need for speed and weight of attack and the need for the right resources.”

Mr Heath, who joined the service in January, was speaking at yesterday morning’s meeting of the Tyne and Wear Fire and Rescue Authority, which was held by videolink and broadcast via YouTube.

TWFRS currently operates its three ALPs under a dual staffing arrangement, meaning they are manned by crews with their own regular fire engine, and only sent out on request or for pre-identified buildings.

According to a report for fire chiefs, the existing system has “resulted in occasions where a pumping appliance has been at an incident and the special appliance requested has not been readily available”.

It is hoped the pilot scheme will reduce the risk of an ALP crew being delayed attending a fire in a tall building because they have already been dispatched to an incident.

Bosses also approved a second trial to introduce another crew at West Denton Community Fire Station, where the existing team also dual crews a  Services Incident Command Unit used to respond to the most significant incidents.

ACFO Heath said: “The proposals reflect an opportunity for the fire authority to reinvest in the frontline in a way it has not had for a long time.

“[Previously] we’ve had to bring options which have, in the main, been about reducing things.

“We’re now in a different place, we have some money we can reinvest.”

Mon, 12 Oct 2020 03:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/18788416.plan-specialist-fire-crew-city/
Why Having A Disaster Recovery Plan For Your Public Cloud Solution Is Essential

Ravi Goyal is the President and CEO of Sureline Systems.

Organizations of all sizes, from small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) to enterprise-level corporations, are continuing to move their workloads and data to the public cloud. This trend has been accelerating at an impressive pace over the last few years.

According to the Flexera 2020 State of the Cloud Report, "nearly half of enterprise workloads and data are in a public cloud." SMBs are taking to the public cloud at an even more significant pace, with the report stating that "70% of SMB workloads and data will reside in a public cloud within the next 12 months." It is not entirely surprising to see these numbers with recent world events hastening the implementation of new and unexpected work-from-home policies for companies all over the globe.

Public clouds are providing free tools to migrate existing servers with associated applications to their cloud, thus making cloud adoption during these unprecedented times easy and economical. Several organizations are also building new applications or reimplementing existing applications using more agile cloud-native technologies, which use automation to manage complexity and unlock velocity. Finally, many companies are switching to SaaS applications that are multitenant rather than moving existing applications entirely into the cloud. The benefit of multitenant SaaS applications is that the shared infrastructure can lead to lower costs as multiple companies share the financial load, including data center framework, OS and application management costs.

Regardless of which cloud adoption strategy a business decides to use, all organizations making their move to the cloud need to accept responsibility for protecting their data.

Disaster Recovery History And Assumptions

Traditionally, organizations had a combination of regular backups for recovery from lost data and disaster recovery (DR) for the loss of a system or a site. This method of data protection used local disk for short-term recovery and tape or, more recently, clouds for the long-term recovery of lost data paired with replication to a secondary location or cloud for DR.

After moving to a public cloud, many businesses have assumed that the cloud provider or SaaS solution provider is taking responsibility for backup and DR. This assumption is dangerous and wrong. Here's why:

• There are many stories of organizations not having access to their applications and data due to a cloud outage. One of the most notable outages was the Amazon Web Service outage of 2011. According to Amazon, the issues affected its Elastic Compute Cloud customers and "involved a subset of the Amazon Elastic Block Store volumes in a single Availability Zone within the U.S. East Region that became unable to service read and write operations. This caused instances trying to use these affected volumes to also get 'stuck' when they attempted to read or write them." Essentially, Amazon's Northern Virginia data center experienced a malfunction and went haywire. The glitch took down over 70 popular sites such as Reddit, Foursquare and The New York Times, and it cost hundreds of millions of dollars in lost revenue — as well as an unquantifiable loss of trust. Had those businesses implemented a robust backup and DR plan, they likely would have faced a minor inconvenience instead of a massive disruption. 

• Deleted data could be gone forever. If data is mistakenly deleted, most public cloud providers don't automatically back up data as part of their solution. Hence, you've lost it for good unless your organization is running snapshots or a backup program. The same is true when relying on a SaaS application.

• Inconsistent data replication is risky. Even when the cloud provider is replicating data to a separate region, there is often no consistency in that data and no protocol for bringing the systems online after an outage. Clarification on data replication and post-outage protocols is arguably the most critical aspect of a complete DR plan.

Talk To A Data Backup And Disaster Recovery Pro

It isn't necessary to become an expert on the public cloud to keep your business safe in the event of a data center disaster. It is important to be aware of what your provider and third parties offer for data backup and DR. Without a firm plan in place, your business could be facing significant financial impacts and a massive loss of brand trust in the event of an outage.

When researching potential cloud specialists to assist in drafting a plan for backups and recovery, consider the following: 

1. Ensure that the specialist has experience with an organization of similar size and complexity to your IT environment.

2. Look for a specialist who understands the different priorities of your applications (some critical, some important, others less) and puts a plan together that takes this into account.

3. Avoid a specialist who tells you backup/recovery is easy and you just need the right product.

4. A backup specialist needs a good understanding of clouds, LANs, WANs, applications and servers. They all come together in the backup plan.

If you don't have a data backup and DR plan in place for your business, now is the time to talk to your trusted cloud expert to have one drafted.

Forbes Technology Council is an invitation-only community for world-class CIOs, CTOs and technology executives. Do I qualify?

Wed, 13 Jan 2021 22:20:00 -0600 Ravi Goyal en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2021/01/14/why-having-a-disaster-recovery-plan-for-your-public-cloud-solution-is-essential/
A 103-Year-Old Holistic Medicine Specialist Shares the ‘5 Ls’ of Her 10-Year Longevity Plan No result found, try new keyword!According to holistic medicine specialist Gladys McGarey ... optimizing her daily routine for what she calls her “10-year plan” for longevity and fulfillment. Yes, she’s continuing to ... Tue, 21 Nov 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/

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