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Exam Code: 201-450 LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5 tricks January 2024 by Killexams.com team

201-450 LPIC-2 Exam 201, Part 1 of 2, version 4.5

Exam Title :
LPIC-2 Linux Engineer

Exam ID :
201-450

90 mins

Questions in Exam :
60

Passing Score :
500 / 800

Exam Center :
LPI Marketplace

Real Questions :
LPI LPIC-2 Real Questions

VCE Practice Test :
LPI 201-450 Certification VCE Practice Test






Topic 200: Capacity Planning

200.1 Measure and Troubleshoot Resource Usage

Weight: 6

Description: Candidates should be able to measure hardware resource and network bandwidth, identify and troubleshoot resource problems.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Measure CPU usage

- Measure memory usage

- Measure disk I/O

- Measure network I/O

- Measure firewalling and routing throughput

- Map client bandwidth usage

- Match / correlate system symptoms with likely problems

- Estimate throughput and identify bottlenecks in a system including networking



The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

- iostat

- netstat

- w

- top

- sar

- processes blocked on I/O

- blocks out

- vmstat

- pstree, ps

- Isof

- uptime

- swap

- blocks in



200.2 Predict Future Resource Needs

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to monitor resource usage to predict future resource needs.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Use monitoring and measurement tools to monitor IT infrastructure usage.

- Predict capacity break point of a configuration

- Observe growth rate of capacity usage

- Graph the trend of capacity usage

- Awareness of monitoring solutions such as Icinga2, Nagios, collectd, MRTG and Cacti



The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

- diagnose

- predict growth

- resource exhaustion



Topic 201: Linux Kernel

201.1 Kernel Components

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to utilize kernel components that are necessary to specific hardware, hardware drivers, system resources and requirements. This objective includes implementing different types of kernel images, identifying stable and development kernels and patches, as well as using kernel modules.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Kernel 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x documentation



Terms and Utilities:

- /usr/src/linux/

- /usr/src/linux/Documentation/

- zImage

- bzImage

- xz compression



201.2 Compiling a kernel

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure a kernel to include or disable specific features of the Linux kernel as necessary. This objective includes compiling and recompiling the Linux kernel as needed, updating and noting changes in a new kernel, creating an initrd image and installing new kernels.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- /usr/src/linux/

- Kernel Makefiles

- Kernel 2.6.x/3.x make targets

- Customize the current kernel configuration.

- Build a new kernel and appropriate kernel modules.

- Install a new kernel and any modules.

- Ensure that the boot manager can locate the new kernel and associated files.

- Module configuration files

- Use DKMS to compile kernel modules.

- Awareness of dracut



Terms and Utilities:

- mkinitrd

- mkinitramfs

- make

- make targets (all, config, xconfig, menuconfig, gconfig, oldconfig, mrproper, zImage, bzImage, modules, modules_install, rpm-pkg, binrpm-pkg, deb-pkg)

- gzip

- bzip2

- module tools

- /usr/src/linux/.config

- /lib/modules/kernel-version/

- depmod

- dkms



201.3 Kernel runtime management and troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to manage and/or query a 2.6.x, 3.x or 4.x kernel and its loadable modules. Candidates should be able to identify and correct common boot and run time issues. Candidates should understand device detection and management using udev. This objective includes troubleshooting udev rules.


Key Knowledge Areas:
- Use command-line utilities to get information about the currently running kernel and kernel modules

- Manually load and unload kernel modules

- Determine when modules can be unloaded

- Determine what parameters a module accepts

- Configure the system to load modules by names other than their file name.

- /proc filesystem

- Content of /, /boot/ , and /lib/modules/

- Tools and utilities to analyze information about the available hardware

- udev rules



Terms and Utilities:

- /lib/modules/kernel-version/modules.dep

- module configuration files in /etc/

- /proc/sys/kernel/

- /sbin/depmod

- /sbin/rmmod

- /sbin/modinfo

- /bin/dmesg

- /sbin/lspci

- /usr/bin/lsdev

- /sbin/lsmod

- /sbin/modprobe

- /sbin/insmod

- /bin/uname

- /usr/bin/lsusb

- /etc/sysctl.conf, /etc/sysctl.d/

- /sbin/sysctl

- udevmonitor

- udevadm monitor

- /etc/udev/



Topic 202: System Startup

202.1 Customizing SysV-init system startup

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to query and modify the behaviour of system services at various targets / run levels. A thorough understanding of the systemd, SysV Init and the Linux boot process is required. This objective includes interacting with systemd targets and SysV init run levels.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Systemd

- SysV init

- Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB)



Terms and Utilities:

- /usr/lib/systemd/

- /etc/systemd/

- /run/systemd/

- systemctl

- systemd-delta

- /etc/inittab

- /etc/init.d/

- /etc/rc.d/

- chkconfig

- update-rc.d

- init and telinit



202.2 System Recovery

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly manipulate a Linux system during both the boot process and during recovery mode. This objective includes using both the init utility and init-related kernel options. Candidates should be able to determine the cause of errors in loading and usage of bootloaders. GRUB version 2 and GRUB Legacy are the bootloaders of interest. Both BIOS and UEFI systems are covered.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- BIOS and UEFI

- NVMe booting

- GRUB version 2 and Legacy

- grub shell

- boot loader start and hand off to kernel

- kernel loading

- hardware initialisation and setup

- daemon/service initialisation and setup

- Know the different boot loader install locations on a hard disk or removable device.

- Overwrite standard boot loader options and using boot loader shells.

- Use systemd rescue and emergency modes.



Terms and Utilities:

- mount

- fsck

- inittab, telinit and init with SysV init

- The contents of /boot/, /boot/grub/ and /boot/efi/

- EFI System Partition (ESP)

- GRUB

- grub-install

- efibootmgr

- UEFI shell

- initrd, initramfs

- Master boot record

- systemctl



202.3 Alternate Bootloaders

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be aware of other bootloaders and their major features.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- SYSLINUX, ISOLINUX, PXELINUX

- Understanding of PXE for both BIOS and UEFI

- Awareness of systemd-boot and U-Boot



Terms and Utilities:

- syslinux

- extlinux

- isolinux.bin

- isolinux.cfg

- isohdpfx.bin

- efiboot.img

- pxelinux.0

- pxelinux.cfg/

- uefi/shim.efi

- uefi/grubx64.efi



Topic 203: Filesystem and Devices

203.1 Operating the Linux filesystem

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to properly configure and navigate the standard Linux filesystem. This objective includes configuring and mounting various filesystem types.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- The concept of the fstab configuration

- Tools and utilities for handling swap partitions and files

- Use of UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems

- Understanding of systemd mount units



Terms and Utilities:

- /etc/fstab

- /etc/mtab

- /proc/mounts

- mount and umount

- blkid

- sync

- swapon

- swapoff



203.2 Maintaining a Linux filesystem​

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain a Linux filesystem using system utilities. This objective includes manipulating standard filesystems and monitoring SMART devices.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Tools and utilities to manipulate and ext2, ext3 and ext4

- Tools and utilities to perform basic Btrfs operations, including subvolumes and snapshots

- Tools and utilities to manipulate XFS

- Awareness of ZFS



Terms and Utilities:

- mkfs (mkfs.*)

- mkswap

- fsck (fsck.*)

- tune2fs, dumpe2fs and debugfs

- btrfs, btrfs-convert

- xfs_info, xfs_check, xfs_repair, xfsdump and xfsrestore

- smartd, smartctl



203.3 Creating and configuring filesystem options

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure automount filesystems using AutoFS. This objective includes configuring automount for network and device filesystems. Also included is creating filesystems for devices such as CD-ROMs and a basic feature knowledge of encrypted filesystems.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- autofs configuration files

- Understanding of automount units

- UDF and ISO9660 tools and utilities

- Awareness of other CD-ROM filesystems (HFS)

- Awareness of CD-ROM filesystem extensions (Joliet, Rock Ridge, El Torito)

- Basic feature knowledge of data encryption (dm-crypt / LUKS)



Terms and Utilities:

- /etc/auto.master

- /etc/auto.[dir]

- mkisofs

- cryptsetup



Topic 204: Advanced Storage Device Administration

204.1 Configuring RAID

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure and implement software RAID. This objective includes using and configuring RAID 0, 1 and 5.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Software raid configuration files and utilities



Terms and Utilities:

- mdadm.conf

- mdadm

- /proc/mdstat

- partition type 0xFD



204.2 Adjusting Storage Device Access

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to configure kernel options to support various drives. This objective includes software tools to view & modify hard disk settings including iSCSI devices.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Tools and utilities to configure DMA for IDE devices including ATAPI and SATA

- Tools and utilities to configure Solid State Drives including AHCI and NVMe

- Tools and utilities to manipulate or analyse system resources (e.g. interrupts)

- Awareness of sdparm command and its uses

- Tools and utilities for iSCSI

- Awareness of SAN, including relevant protocols (AoE, FCoE)



Terms and Utilities:

- hdparm, sdparm

- nvme

- tune2fs

- fstrim

- sysctl

- /dev/hd*, /dev/sd*, /dev/nvme*

- iscsiadm, scsi_id, iscsid and iscsid.conf

- WWID, WWN, LUN numbers



204.3 Logical Volume Manager

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to create and remove logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes. This objective includes snapshots and resizing logical volumes.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Tools in the LVM suite

- Resizing, renaming, creating, and removing logical volumes, volume groups, and physical volumes

- Creating and maintaining snapshots

- Activating volume groups



Terms and Utilities:

- /sbin/pv*

- /sbin/lv*

- /sbin/vg*

- mount

- /dev/mapper/

- lvm.conf



Topic 205: Network Configuration

205.1 Basic networking configuration

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to be able to connect to a local, wired or wireless, and a wide-area network. This objective includes being able to communicate between various subnets within a single network including both IPv4 and IPv6 networks.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces

- Configuring basic access to wireless networks



Terms and Utilities:

- ip

- ifconfig

- route

- arp

- iw

- iwconfig

- iwlist



205.2 Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to configure a network device to implement various network authentication schemes. This objective includes configuring a multi-homed network device and resolving communication problems.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Utilities to manipulate routing tables

- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces

- Utilities to analyze the status of the network devices

- Utilities to monitor and analyze the TCP/IP traffic



Terms and Utilities:

- ip

- ifconfig

- route

- arp

- ss

- netstat

- lsof

- ping, ping6

- nc

- tcpdump

- nmap



205.3 Troubleshooting Network Issues

Weight: 4

Description: Candidates should be able to identify and correct common network setup issues, to include knowledge of locations for basic configuration files and commands.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Location and content of access restriction files

- Utilities to configure and manipulate ethernet network interfaces

- Utilities to manage routing tables

- Utilities to list network states.

- Utilities to gain information about the network configuration

- Methods of information about the recognized and used hardware devices

- System initialization files and their contents (SysV init process)

- Awareness of NetworkManager and its impact on network configuration



Terms and Utilities:

- ip

- ifconfig

- route

- ss

- netstat

- /etc/network/, /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/

- ping, ping6

- traceroute, traceroute6

- mtr

- hostname

- System log files such as /var/log/syslog, /var/log/messages and the systemd journal

- dmesg

- /etc/resolv.conf

- /etc/hosts

- /etc/hostname, /etc/HOSTNAME

- /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny



Topic 206: System Maintenance

206.1 Make and install programs from source

Weight: 2

Description: Candidates should be able to build and install an executable program from source. This objective includes being able to unpack a file of sources.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Unpack source code using common compression and archive utilities

- Understand basics of invoking make to compile programs

- Apply parameters to a configure script

- Know where sources are stored by default



Terms and Utilities:

- /usr/src/

- gunzip

- gzip

- bzip2

- xz

- tar

- configure

- make

- uname

- install

- patch



206.2 Backup operations

Weight: 3

Description: Candidates should be able to use system tools to back up important system data.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Knowledge about directories that have to be include in backups

- Awareness of network backup solutions such as Amanda, Bacula, Bareos and BackupPC

- Knowledge of the benefits and drawbacks of tapes, CDR, disk or other backup media

- Perform partial and manual backups.

- Verify the integrity of backup files.

- Partially or fully restore backups.

Terms and Utilities:

- /bin/sh

- dd

- tar

- /dev/st* and /dev/nst*

- mt

- rsync



206.3 Notify users on system-related issues

Weight: 1

Description: Candidates should be able to notify the users about current issues related to the system.



Key Knowledge Areas:

- Automate communication with users through logon messages

- Inform active users of system maintenance



Terms and Utilities:

- /etc/issue

- /etc/issue.net

- /etc/motd

- wall

- /sbin/shutdown

- systemctl
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Question: 156
What is the purpose of a system mount unit?
A. It is used by the command systemd-mount and allows users to mount partitions to
mount points of their choice
B. It is used only to mount network file systems to local mount points. It cannot be used
for local media
C. It is created by the command systemd-fstab-generator to integrate entries from
/etc/fstab into the system boot process
D. It is used by the command mount when using system to mount and unmount file
systems
Answer: A
Question: 157
In which directory tree are files modified when changing kernel parameters using the
command sysctl?
A. /sys/kernel/
B. /proc/kernel/
C. /proc/sys/
D. /lib/sys/
E. /sys/proc/
Answer: C
Question: 158
Which command is used to install a GRUB boot loader into the master boot record?
A. grub-install
B. grub-mkconfig
C. grub-install-mbr
D. grub-glue-mbr
E. grub-mbr-setup
Answer: A
Question: 159
Which of the following commands restores only those files containing lpi in their name
from the archive lpifiles.tar.gz?
A. tar xvzf lpifiles.tar.gz --wildcards *lpi*
B. tar xvzwf lpifiles.tar.gz *lpi*
C. tar -xvfz lpifiles.tar.gz --deep *lpi*
D. tar -xvzf lpifiles.tar.gz --subdirs *lpi*
E. tar xvzf lpifiles.tar.gz --globbing *lpi*
Answer: A
Question: 160
CORRECT TEXT
Which is the main configuration file for the SystemV init process? (Specify the full
name of the file, including path.)
Answer: /etc/inittab
Question: 161
What effect does the f option to the update-rc.d command have on files in the
/etc/rcX.d/ and /etc/init.d/ directories?
A. It will force the removal of the symlinks in /etc/rcX.d/ even when the links are read
only
B. It will remove both the symlinks in /etc/rcX.d/ and the init script in /etc/init.d/
C. It will remove the init script in /etc/init.d/ and the symlinks in /etc/rcX.d/ and update
the package information of installed files
D. It will force the removal of symlinks in /etc/rcX.d/ even if the corresponding init
script still exists in /etc/init.d/
Answer: D
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You probably want a streaming device for your TV, whether you're a cord cutter or not. Roku is a popular choice, particularly as it ramps up its own original content.

Roku devices offer plenty of variety and portability, from the budget Roku Express to the feature-packed Roku Ultra. Whichever one you have, there's more to know beyond the basics. Here's how to get more out of your streaming device.


Our Top-Rated Roku Devices


1. One List to Rule Them All

TV with detail page for House of the Dragon showing Add to Save List feature

(Credit: Roku)

You have watchlists for all of your streaming apps, which means you have to scroll and scroll when you want to find something to watch. Instead, you can save everything to one universal list with a Roku. Use the Roku OS to search for the shows and movies you want to watch, and on the details page of each, select Add to Save List. Find the list by going to the Roku home screen and selecting What to Watch.


2. Pick Up Where You Left Off

Have you ever wanted to resume watching a movie or show where you left off, but you've forgotten which streaming service it was on? Just go to the Roku Home Screen, click What to Watch, scroll to Continue Watching, and it'll be listed there.


3. Watch Free Movies and Shows on The Roku Channel

Video-streaming services are great, but the majority aren't free. With The Roku Channel, you can sign in and access those premium channels (including Max and Netflix)—but the channel also offers free access to thousands of movies and TV episodes, if you can handle a few commercials. Roku has been adding more original content as well. Go to The Roku Channel, and scroll down to the Live TV Channel Guide for hundreds of choices. You can also watch in the Roku app, whether you have a Roku device or not: Just download it, sign in or create an account, and start streaming.


4. Search Thousands of Channels at Once

Roku search screen

(Credit: Roku)

Instead of searching every Roku channel individually to find what you want, search across them with Roku Search. Enter your search term via the Roku remote, Roku mobile app, or via voice search, and you'll see results from over 4,000 channels. Search by title, actor, or director, and you'll get a comprehensive list. Similarly, use Roku Search to compare the costs of streaming content: Type in a movie, show, or star for a list of available titles and the prices for each across channels and services.


5. Get in the Zone

roku zone screenshot

(Credit: Roku)

Roku Zones are collections of movies and shows from across channels that are organized by genre or topic. Go to search, type in a search term such as "comedy," and scroll through the zone that pops up. Roku added a Live TV Zone for quick access to live TV streaming services like Hulu, fuboTV, Philo, Sling, and YouTube TV, to name a few. 


6. Photos as Big as Life

TV displaying photo of people hanging out at night under a string of lights

(Credit: Roku)

If you want to get a closer look at your photos or share them with a group, you can add Google Photos to your Roku. Go to photostreams.roku.com, sign in (you may have to verify your email), and you'll see a link to connect to Google Photos.


7. Turn Your Phone Into a Roku Remote

Roku app on remote function

As great a device as the Roku is, navigating via the remote could be a better experience. To get around that, download the Roku Official Remote Control app (iOSAndroid), and get the benefit of a keyboard, easy searching, and streaming from your phone or tablet.


8. Talk to Your Roku Remote

That said, you could always talk to your Roku directly with a Roku Voice Remote Pro, Voice Remote, or the Roku mobile app. On the remotes, press either the microphone icon and hold down as you speak your request. On the app, select the magnifying glass to get to the search page, then tap the microphone, let it go, speak your request, and tap the middle of the screen.


9. Ask Alexa or the Google Assistant

adding roku to alexa screenshots

Connecting Roku to Amazon's Alexa (Credit: PCMag/Amazon)

If you have an Amazon Echo and a Roku, ask Alexa to control your Roku. First, you'll have to link both accounts by opening the Alexa mobile app, selecting Skills & Games, and searching for Roku. When you find it, tap Enable to Use, sign in to your Roku account, and select the Roku device you want to link (or Select All if you have more than one).

Close your Roku account, and Alexa will search for the device on the Device Discovery screen. Once it's found, tap Manage, Link Devices, and select the Roku you want to connect to Alexa. Then add the Roku to a group by selecting the Devices icon. Either add it to an existing group or create a new one by tapping the plus button. In the Alexa app, tap on the Roku device, and make sure it is enabled. Then you'll be able to use commands such as, "Alexa, open Netflix on living room Roku."

You can also use Google Assistant to make voice requests. First, check that your Roku player is running Roku OS 9.0 or higher or that your Roku TV has Roku OS 8.2 or higher. Set up your Google Assistant on your Google device or app. Open the Google Assistant mobile app, tap Explore > Settings > Home Control > Add Device > Find > Roku. Sign in to your Roku account and then choose which device you want to control with Google Assistant.


10. Find That Lost Remote

speaker grille on the back of the roku remote pro

Speaker grille on the Roku Remote Pro (Credit: Will Greenwald/PCMag)

The Roku remote is easily lost in couch cushions and under coffee tables. If you've spent far too much time hunting for it, we have some solutions.

  • If you have a remote with a speaker grille, open the Roku app, tap the microphone, and say, "Hey, Roku, find my remote." The remote will emit a beeping noise.

  • If you have a Roku Ultra, long-press the button on the right side of the device, and the remote will emit a beep.

  • If the remote you've lost is the Voice Remote Pro, say, "Hey, Roku, find my remote," and it will start beeping.

  • To stop the beeping noise once you've located your remote, press any button on the remote.

To change the noise your Roku remote emits when it's lost, open the Roku app on your TV and go to Settings > Remote > Change Remote Finder Sound. To hear what it sounds like, click Preview Remote Finder Sound.


11. Make Your Roku at Home(Kit)

For iPhone and iPad owners, Roku devices support AirPlay and HomeKit, so you can send videos, photos, and music from your device to the TV and supported speakers. Set it up in the Roku menu by navigating to Settings > Apple AirPlay & HomeKit > Launch Apple AirPlay & HomeKit setup. A QR code will pop up. Scan it with your iPhone or iPad's camera and follow the instructions on your Apple device to finish setup. HomeKit, meanwhile, lets you control your Roku using Siri and the Apple Home app ("Hey Siri, play jazz on the living room TV").


12. Let Siri and Roku Chat

Three screens with Siri Shortcuts process described below

Your Roku and iPhone can work together, with Siri acting as the interpreter. The Roku iOS app has Siri Shortcuts that let you control your Roku with your voice. Open the app on your phone, tap the account icon at the top right, and select Siri Shortcuts. You can turn on the ability to open the Roku remote, play or pause Roku, search Roku, and turn a Roku on and off for certain models. Click on each option to keep the suggested phrasing or come up with your own commands.


13. Roku Screen Mirroring

With AirPlay enabled, you can mirror your iPhone or iPad screen via the Control Center to Roku, though most Roku devices support screen mirroring from Android and Windows devices too. To hook it up, press the Home button on your Roku remote, then go to Settings > System > Screen Mirroring. You’ll have the option to choose between Prompt or Always Allow.


14. Practice Casting

If you prefer Google's Cast technology, you can send music, videos, and photos from mobile devices to most Roku-connected devices easily as long as both are connected to the same Wi-Fi network. Open the content you want to share on the device, and look for the cast icon. Click it, and you should see all available Roku devices pop up in a menu.


15. Automatic Volume Leveling

How many times have you been lulled into somnolence by a show only to be jolted awake by a commercial? On most Roku models, you can turn on Leveling, so a commercial or a channel change doesn't result in a spike in volume. You can also choose to have soft sounds increased and loud sounds decreased with Night mode.

Turn on the feature either from Settings, if you have a Streambar or Smart Soundbar, or while streaming with other Roku devices. For Streambars and Soundbars, press the Home button on the remote and go to Settings > Audio > Volume Modes. For other devices, press the star button on the remote and navigate to Sound Settings > Volume Mode.


16. Use Roku Private Listening

Roku Voice Remote Pro with wired earbuds plugged in

Roku Voice Remote Pro (Credit: Roku)

When you want to watch something on your Roku without disturbing those around you, use Private Listening. The Roku Voice Remote Pro, Enhanced Voice Remote, and Gaming Remote include built-in headphone jacks; just plug in and keep watching. Or download the Roku mobile app, connect your headphones to your device, and tap the headphones icon.


17. Save That Screen

roku screensaver options

(Credit: Roku)

Maybe you paused whatever you're watching and walked out of the room. Or you fell asleep, and now the Roku logo is bouncing around your screen like the flying toasters of yore. Give yourself something nicer to look at with Roku's screensavers. Click the Home button on your remote, then go to Settings > Theme > Screensavers.

Recommended by Our Editors


18. Get Your Game On

Roku games

(Credit: Roku)

It's not a Nintendo Switch, but your Roku is still in the game. Hit the Home button, go to Streaming Channels > Games, and you can go retro with Snake or go on a sugar-fueled rampage in Candy Bear. The Roku Enhanced Gaming Remote with Voice Search supports motion-control gaming.


19. Move the Apps on Your Roku Home Screen

Roku displays channels in the order in which you add them, but you can move them around. Find the app you want to move, press the star button on your Roku remote, and select "Move channel" from the pop-up menu. Use the directional pad to move it to the desired location.


20. Say What?

Roku remote with replay button circled

(Credit: Roku)

If you missed those last few lines in a show or movie, there's a quick way to catch up. Set up instant replay by going to Settings > Accessibility > Captions Mode and selecting On Replay. Then, when you hit the Instant Replay button on the remote, you'll also get the text on the screen.


21. Stream Your Own Stuff Via Plex

family sitting on a couch navigating the plex interface on a TV

(Credit: Plex)

Though Roku offers a ton of different channels and things to watch, you'll probably still want to access your locally stored content on your TV. Sign up for Plex Pass ($4.99 per month, $39.99 per year, $119.99 for a lifetime), and you can. Plex organizes your scattered content and lets you watch it from tablets, TVs, phones, and more; you can record and watch live broadcast TV, too.

Download the Plex app. Then install the Plex channel on your Roku, launch it, then go to plex.tv/pin. Log in and enter the code from the Roku Plex channel on the website.


22. Tap Into Live TV Streaming Services

Cable Alternative or Streaming Channels > Watch With Cable

(Credit: Roku)

New live TV services are popping up regularly to meet your sports and Hallmark movie needs. To see what's on offer, click the Home button on your remote, and go to Streaming Channels > Cable Alternative to log into services including Sling and Hulu, or go to Streaming Channels > Watch With Cable to log in with a pay TV provider, such as Comcast or Spectrum. You can also go to the Roku Channel, scroll down to the Live TV Channel Guide, and flip through hundreds of channels without paying for any of them. That includes NewsOn, which streams local news broadcasts from outlets nationwide.


23. Show Your Team Spirit

screen for a Maryland Terrapins vs. Ohio State Buckeyes game

(Credit: Roku)

You can follow your favorite sports teams on Roku by going to the Home screen on your device, scrolling down to Sports, doing a search for an upcoming game, going to that page, and then selecting the heart icon next to your team's name. That will create a My Favorites row under Sports with all upcoming games.


24. Cloud DVRs

A number of live TV streaming services offer cloud DVR, meaning you can record live TV and access your shows later via the service's Roku app.

  • If you have an antenna to watch live TV, you can record it with a device like the Tablo TV. Set it up, download the app to your Roku, and you can watch, pause, and record.

  • YouTube TV subscriptions come with a cloud DVR that holds an unlimited number of hours of programming for nine months.

  • Sling TV customers get 50 hours of free DVR storage. Upgrade to DVR Plus for 200 hours of storage starting at $5 per month.

  • DirecTV Stream comes with a cloud DVR that holds 20 hours of content for nine months.

  • Included with Hulu with Live TV is the ability to record unlimited live news, sports, shows, movies and events, which are saved for up to nine months.

  • Philo subscribers can save anything that streams to the service's included DVR for a year.

  • fuboTV provides subscribers with a DVR function that can be set even partway through a show's airing to capture the entire thing. How much is stored depends on your plan.


25. Be Our Guest

roku guest mode

(Credit: Roku)

Your guests can make themselves at home by accessing their Roku settings without disturbing yours. All you have to do is enable Guest Mode (previously Auto Sign Out Mode). Go to my.roku.com/account/PIN, set up a PIN, and then press the Home button on the Roku remote. Go to Settings > System > Guest Mode > Enter Guest Mode. Then enter your PIN and select OK. When guests come to stay, direct them to the Roku guide on using Guest Mode


26. Stay Up to Date

To get the most out of your Roku, you should install the latest software version. The device generally handles this on its own, but if you've recently added a channel, or your Roku has been disconnected for a while, you might have missed an update. In that case, you can update manually by going to Settings > System > System Update.

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Wed, 27 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/how-to/hidden-roku-tricks-for-streaming-success
22 Google Maps Tricks You Need to Try

Google Maps has changed how we navigate the world. Its desktop and mobile apps have become more than just a way to get from point A to B via car, public transportation, or on foot: The ubiquitous Google service is also a geospatial search engine for the world around us.

Google continues to revamp and improve its map product, but there are a ton of customizable tools and hidden functions already baked into Google Maps that you may not know about, such as Incognito Mode. Check out our tips for how to maximize your Google Maps power.


1. We're Doing It Live

screenshots of Search with Live View in Paris

Search with Live View (Credit: Google)

You can get an AR view of the street you're on, if that street is in Amsterdam, Dublin, Florence, London, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, San Francisco, Tokyo, or Venice. Open Maps, click the camera icon at the top, and hold your phone up to scan your location. You'll get an overlay of all the places you'd see on Maps, so you can easily find restaurants, shops, and more.

Meanwhile, Immersive View for routes, which rolled out in October, gives you a bird's-eye view of your route complete with 3D imagery along the way, whether you're walking, cycling, or driving. Look for it in select cities, including Amsterdam, London, New York, and Tokyo.


2. Inside Access

Google Maps zoomed in to Directory tab on JFK

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Google Maps isn't just for the great outdoors. You can navigate through malls, airports, and other big buildings by finding the location in Maps, clicking on it, then scrolling to Directory. You'll never get lost looking for a Cinnabon again. This feature is available in over 10,000 locations worldwide.

three screens showing how to use Live view

Navigating with indoor Live View (Credit: Google)

Some places even support Live View inside, where animated arrows will guide you around airports, train stations, and malls. It launched in 2021 in the US, Zurich, and Tokyo, and in early 2023, it announced plans to expand to more than 1,000 new locations in Barcelona, Berlin, Frankfurt, London, Madrid, Melbourne, Paris, Prague, São Paulo, Singapore, Sydney, and Taipei. Just lift your phone up in a supported region to jump into Live View.


3. Plot Multiple Locations on Google Maps

file path for plotting Multiple Locations on Google Maps

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Rarely do car trips consist of going from point A to B; more often, they are something like A-to-café-to-library-to-Joe's-house-to-B. Thankfully, Google makes it possible to anticipate real trips. To add multiple destinations in the Google Maps mobile app, enter your starting point and your ultimate destination, and then click the three-dot menu in the top-right corner. This prompts a pop-over menu with the option to "Add stop." Click that, and you can create a route with multiple stops. You can even drag and drop stops within your itinerary. (Note that this doesn't work when you're using the mass-transit option.)


4. Customize Your Vehicle Icon

screenshots of changing the car icon that shows up in the google maps app

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

When you're driving, Google lets you choose what kind of car shows up on your navigation in the iOS and Android apps. In the app, plug in your destination and start up driving directions. Tap the icon that shows your current location, and a pop-up menu appears with several car-icon options: a sedan, a pickup truck, or an SUV.


5. 'Hey Google, Where Am I Going?'

google assistant prompts in the google maps app

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

You might want to interact with Maps while you're driving, but you don't want to take your eyes off the road. With "OK Google" voice commands in the Google Maps Android app, you don't have to. For example, if you notice you're running low on gas, say "OK Google, find gas stations," and it will show gas stations on the map (which you can look at when you've come to a red light or pulled over). You can also ask questions like "What's my next turn?", "What's my ETA?", and "How's traffic ahead?" On Android, set up Google Assistant, and you're good to go. (You'll need a phone running Android Version 9.0 or higher with 4GB RAM or more.) On iOS (pictured above), tap the microphone icon at the top-right, then ask your questions via voice.


6. Access Google Maps Offline

screenshot of the download option in the Google Maps mobile app

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Today, Maps is most useful on mobile, which brings up a problem: When you're in need of Maps, you may find yourself somewhere with limited (or—gasp—nonexistent) coverage. To help, Google Maps supports offline access. Type in an address or area, swipe up on the menu at the bottom of the screen, tap the ellipsis icon on the top right, and select Download offline map. If you have enough storage on your device, the map in question will be saved. To access it later, tap your avatar > Offline maps, and you can then get information about businesses in the region and turn-by-turn directions within the downloaded section.


7. Get Your Groceries

Get Your Groceries

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Google has incorporated grocery ordering and pickup functionality into Maps for select brands. Things kicked off a few years ago amid the boom in curbside pickup during the pandemic. That's still an option; in early 2023, Google touted the improvements it's made to the ETA function inside Google Maps for Kroger pickups. But grocery stores can also add a Place an order option to their Maps business profiles. In addition to Kroger stores (which also includes Fry's, Ralphs, and Marianos), it's also available for Albertson's and Fred Meyer locations.


8. Let Other People Drive

screenshot of Lyft options within the Google Maps app and then in the Lyft app

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Ride-sharing services are a big part of the modern transportation mix, so Google added ride options from companies such as Lyft (sorry, no more Uber) to its mobile app. Once you enter your destination, tap the little figure attempting to hail a taxi or the mass-transit option. You'll then be presented with nearby rideshare options, along with the estimated time of arrival and fare. Tap Open App to book your ride.


9. Find Accessible Transit Routes and Locations

screenshot of accessibility file paths in google maps

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Those with mobility issues can search for wheelchair-accessible transit routes by tapping Options > Wheelchair Accessible when looking for train or bus directions. When you get to your destination, meanwhile, the Accessible Places setting offers up wheelchair-accessibility information about that location.

Turn it on via Settings > Accessibility > Accessible Places. "When Accessible Places is switched on, a wheelchair icon will indicate an accessible entrance, and you’ll be able to see if a place has accessible seating, restrooms, or parking," Google says. "If it’s confirmed that a place does not have an accessible entrance, we’ll show that information on Maps as well."


10. Change The Font Size

Change The Font Size screenshots

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

If the words on Google Maps are too small to read, make them bigger.

On an iPhone, make sure you have iOS 15 or higher via Settings > General > About. Then go to Settings > Control Center. Under More Controls, you'll see Text Size. Tap the green plus icon on the left, which moves it to the top under Included Controls. Now, open Google Maps and swipe down from the upper right where you see the battery icon. Tap on the Text Size button (an icon of a small A next to a large A). On the bottom, select whether you want to increase the font size on just Google Maps or across all apps. You can then increase the font size with the white bars. Close out of Control Center and your font adjustments should update automatically.

On an Android, you can change the size of the font or display but this is going to be a universal change across all of the device's apps. Open Settings, then select Accessibility. You can make words larger by tapping Font Size and then setting your preferred letter size or change the display size by tapping Display Size and then setting your preferred icon size.


11. Remember Where You Parked

dropping an 'i parked here' pin in google maps

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Remember when the Seinfeld gang spent the whole half hour wandering around a parking garage looking for their parked car? That episode (along with many others) would not work in 2024, thanks to Google Maps.

At your destination, tap the blue location dot, and select Save parking, which adds a label to the Maps app identifying where you parked. On Android, tap that to add details such as the parking garage level and spot or the amount of time left before a meter expires. You can also set meter reminders, add a photo of where you parked, and send your parking location to friends.

To find it later, tap the search bar at the top, and select Parking location (Android) or Saved parking (iOS). Or tap the Driving arrow below, and look for Saved parking on iOS. Google will automatically delete the parking reminder after 8 hours, though you can manually get rid of it by tapping You parked here on the map and selecting Clear (iOS) or More info > Clear (Android).


12. What's the Parking Sitch?

google maps labels about whether parking is busy or not

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Google Maps can provide turn-by-turn directions based on live-ish traffic data, but it can also provide you with a glimpse of the parking situation. When you search for driving directions to a location on iOS or Android, you might see a P logo at the bottom of the screen along with one of three designations: limited, medium, and easy (plus On-site for retailers with large parking lots). This can help you decide how much time you'll need to allocate for parking or even whether another form of transportation would be a better option.


13. Share Your Location

Share Your Location on ios

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Google Maps lets you share your current location with people for specified periods of time. When you share your location with a certain contact, they'll see your icon moving in real time on their map. On mobile, tap your profile icon on the top right, and select Location sharing. Then choose with whom you want to share and for how long. (You may need to first allow notifications from Google Maps in your phone's settings menu.)


14. View (and Delete) Your Google Maps History

screenshot of the settings in the ios mobile app for deleting google maps history

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Google maintains a very detailed record of your digital activities. If you'd rather it lose your Maps data, you can erase it on desktop or mobile. On a desktop, go to maps.google.com. Click the hamburger menu, and select Your data in Maps. You'll end up on a page titled Google-wide Controls, where you can go to Location History > See & delete activity. You'll see a map with a timeline of your activity. On the bottom-right of the map, click the trashcan icon to delete all your location history permanently.

As of December 2023, the first time you turn on location history, Google will default you to auto-delete your history every three months. To adjust that, navigate to myactivity.google.com. Click Location History > Choose an auto-delete option, and choose how often Google will delete your data (every 3, 18, or 36 months) or turn auto-delete off completely.

Recommended by Our Editors

On mobile, go to Settings > Maps History, which will bring you to a Maps Activity page. Look for the Delete drop-down menu, where you can opt to delete your history from today, all time, or a custom range. Tap Auto-delete to select a timeframe for when Google will automatically delete Maps data


15. Go Incognito

incognito mode inside the google maps ios app

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

For a quick way to poke around Google Maps without leaving any obvious footprints, go Incognito. Google Maps won't save your browser or search history in your account or send notifications. Your searches and movements won't be added to location history or shared location. And Google won't use your activity while you're in Incognito Mode to personalize Maps. This mode has advantages when you want to peep a location without having it tangled up with your search history, but just as on web browsers, it doesn't make you invisible. To turn the mode on, tap your avatar and select Turn on Incognito mode; the Incognito icon appears in the search bar. Tap it and select Turn off Incognito mode to switch it off.


16. Time Travel With Google Maps

screenshot of the time travel feature in google maps on ios

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Street View has amassed a huge collection of street imagery over the years. In 2014, Google introduced Time Travel, a way for users to see how Street View has changed over time. And in 2022, it expanded from the desktop to mobile. To look back at a particular address, enter Street View and tap anywhere on the screen. At the bottom, tap See more dates. Where available, this should produce a series of photos. Scroll through and select the date you want to see.


17. Add Some Music

screenshot of music settings in google maps

If you've always got Google Maps navigation open while you're driving (or walking), you can add music to your trip without leaving the app. Sync music apps such as Spotify or Apple Music by opening the menu and navigating to Settings. On iOS, tap Navigation > Music playback controls to connect Apple Music or Spotify. On Android, tap Navigation settings > Assistant default media provider, where you can link a number of music-streaming services, including YouTube Music, Spotify, Apple Music, iHeartRadio, Pandora, and Deezer. Once you do, a pop-up to your app of choice should appear as you're driving for a quick tap to get your music started. Be sure to create your playlists beforehand so you can keep your eyes on the road!


18. Find Electric-Vehicle Charging Stations

screenshot showing how to search for EV charging stations on Google Maps

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

More and more electric vehicles (EVs) are taking to the road, and Google Maps is adapting. You can search "EV charging" or "EV charging station" in Google Maps, and it suggests the best station for you based on traffic conditions, your charge level, and the expected energy consumption. You can filter by types of plugs, and if you're in a rush, you can select Fast Charge to find the charging stations with the most voltage. If you use Android Auto in an EV, meanwhile, it will no longer show gas stations.


19. Request Fuel-Efficient Routes

fuel efficiency settings in google maps

(Credit: Google/PCMag)

Want to make sure that next road trip is fuel-efficient? Turn on this setting in Google Maps and the app will prioritize fuel- or energy-efficiency over other factors like real-time traffic and road conditions. "So besides showing you the fastest route, it will also show you the most efficient one, even if they aren't the same," Google says.

Go to Settings > Navigation / Navigation settings and toggle Prefer fuel-efficient routes to on. Here, you can also tell Google Maps your engine type: gas, diesel, electric, or hybrid. Google will then serve up routes based on that engine type to help you save fuel.


20. Find Safe Drug-Disposal Locations

Find Safe Drug Disposal Locations

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Google Maps is doing its part to fight the opioid crisis with a search tool to help users find safe drug-disposal locations. Type "drug disposal" into the search bar to pull up pharmacies, medical centers, and local authority locations where you can safely dispose of excess pills.


21. Share Your Favorite Places

screenshots of creating a list and sharing that list within the google maps ios app

(Credit: PCMag/Google)

Google Maps lets you share some of your favorite places with a friend. Just tap the share icon on the location's Google Maps card to send it to them via text, email, or your app of choice. Save favorite places by tapping the Save icon; they then show up in the Saved option in the menu bar.

If you want to share more than one favorite location, you can create a Pinterest-like list within Google Maps. When you save a favorite place, tap New List to create a collection (like "Thai restaurants in Brooklyn") or add it to an existing collection. You'll find them in the Saved tab under Your lists; tap the three-dot menu and then Share List to send a link to friends.


22. Become (or Consult) a Local Guide

Think you know your neighborhood better than Google's algorithm? Then consider becoming a Local Guide. Although anyone can leave reviews and tips in Google Maps, being a Local Guides allows you to earn points for leaving more insights and data, which—as you go up the ladder—can result in "rewards and early access to new features," Google says.

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Sat, 30 Dec 2023 10:01:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/how-to/google-maps-tips-tricks
Four Stupid Leadership Tricks To Avoid

You can lead your organization to success in one of two ways: You can actually lead your people or you can herd them like cattle. I've been a fan of cattle drives ever since watching the TV show Rawhide with Clint Eastwood as Rowdy Yates, but that doesn't make me a fan of the herding-cattle model of leadership. The cattle model gets an organization to its planned destination but usually without creativity and with mediocre productivity.

What are the stupid leadership tricks you need to avoid so that you can lead as opposed to herding your employees?

Meetings: Meetings are the graveyard of productivity. Meetings corral your people like cattle awaiting the train to the slaughterhouse. Why? People can’t do their jobs when they’re in meetings. And if you think they can multi-task by working on their smart devices in a meeting, well, what the heck is the point of having those people in a meeting? You know how you can tell who’s multi-tasking in a meeting? They’re the folks who respond to a question by saying, “Oh, I’m sorry, could you repeat that?”

Only have meetings when there's a real need. The frequency of meetings should be driven by urgent need. If you must have meetings, keep the attendance down to the people you need to have in the room. And whatever else you do, keep the meeting short: Admiral Chester Nimitz, commander of the Pacific Fleet in World War II, ran all Navy operations throughout the war in daily (he was leading the entire Pacific war — of course the frequency of his meetings needed to be daily), short meetings (usually 20 minutes) where all the attendees stood through the meeting. Given Nimitz’s victorious record fighting the most geographically gigantic war in the history of the world, you might want to adopt brief, stand-up meetings.

Memos instead of calls/calls instead of face-to-face: Don’t send someone an email when you can call. And don’t call if you can talk face-to-face. Communication always works better the more direct and personal it is. Think this is a waste of time? Would you prefer to stick to large meetings and broadcast emails and voicemails? Try this experiment: designate an employee as your lead steer, hang a bell around her neck and see if she leads all the other employees (cattle) to creative productivity.

If you communicate directly, write a memo recapping your conversation. Your memo (best if on email) serves to put the conversation on the record and gives whomever you talked to a guide for dealing with the matters discussed.

Another tool for clarity: General George Patton insisted that anyone he gave an order to repeat the order back to him. The repetitious response didn’t prove that the order was properly understood, but it did prove that the order was heard correctly — and that’s often a long step toward understanding. (If you decide to use this tool, you should still follow up with a memo recapping your conversation.)

On occasion, the urgency of a situation requires mass communications. It's the fastest way to get necessary details out. But, like meetings, this should be done because it's a necessity.

Insisting on results: This should be a no brainer, but sadly, it’s not. I’ve worked in the for-profit and not-for-profit worlds for a long time and have had a number of bosses who honestly believed that if they insisted that a project have a certain result, it would produce the demanded result. Bosses who employ this technique like to use the word “must” as if it were a magical incantation that always works.

In the real world, a boss’s use of the word “must” has no more effectiveness than “hocus pocus.” If you don’t believe me, imagine this scenario: you prod your lead steer (the one with the bell around its neck) to guide the herd to a watering hole. You then call to the cattle and tell them they must drink. Must. Drink. You say this in a loud, powerful tone. Do the cattle drink? Or do they look around for a salt lick?

Please believe me, when it comes to use of the word “must,” human beings are barely more cooperative than cattle. Do you really want to risk thousands of dollars (or much, much more?) on insisting you get your results?

Spinning instead of straight talk: Many employees have excellent BS radars. You can feed them spin all day long, but they won’t buy it. Worse, they’ll think you’re an idiot for trying to convince them your spin is reality — and people don’t like working for idiots. Most people think they’re smarter than their bosses anyway, so why give them grist for their ego mills?

General Dwight Eisenhower ran D-Day and commanded the Allies all the way into Germany on the principle of honesty. He briefed the press completely on the D-Day invasion and told them he needed their cooperation in keeping the operation a secret until he approved the news release. The reporters were happy to comply. He was honest with his superiors when he disagreed with their ideas but loyal in following his orders, knowing that he had been heard. He accepted argument from his subordinates, even from the egomaniacal Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery.

Once you’ve established your reputation for honesty, when you find yourself in a situation where you can’t be completely forthcoming, you can say, “I’m sorry but I can’t talk about that right now,” and it will be accepted. After all, everyone knows you’re honest. If Ike could beat the Nazis by continuously playing the honesty card, it'll probably work for you.

Avoid these stupid leadership tricks, treat your people like people instead of cattle, and enjoy the increase in productivity and creativity at your organization.

Watch on Forbes:

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 01:01:00 -0600 Geoff Loftus en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/geoffloftus/2016/01/20/four-stupid-leadership-tricks-to-avoid/
Control Tricks For Tailsitters

An RC VTOL aircraft always makes for a compelling project, but ensuring the transition between hover and forward flight can be quite challenging. In the video after the break, [Nicholas Rehm] demystifies of the flight control algorithm required for a VTOL tailsitter.

Tailsitters are one of the simplest VTOL arrangements, the testbed here being a simple foam KF airfoil wing with two motors and two servo-controlled elevons. As with almost all his projects [Nicholas], uses of his open-source dRehmFlight flight controller to demonstrate the practical implementation of the control algorithm.

Three major factors that need to be simultaneously taken into account when transitioning a tailsitter VTOL. First off, yaw becomes roll, and vice versa. This implies that in hover mode, elevons have to move in opposite directions to control yaw; however, this same action will make it roll in forward flight. The same applies for differential thrust from motors — it controls roll in hover and yaw in forward flight. Nevertheless, this change of control scheme only works if the flight controller also alters its reference frame for “level” flight (i.e., flips forward 90°). As [Nicholas] demonstrates, failing to do so results in a quick and chaotic encounter with the ground.

With these adjustments made, the aircraft can transition to forward flight but will oscillate pitch-wise as it overcorrects while trying to maintain stable flight; this is due to PID gains – 3rd factor. The deflection required by control surfaces is much more aggressive during hover mode; thus PID gains need to be reduced during forward flight. A final improvement involves adding a brief delay when switching modes for smoother rotation.

For more interesting VTOL configurations, check out [Tom Stanton]’s RC V-22 Osprey, and this solar recharging trimotor

Fri, 06 Oct 2023 17:07:00 -0500 Danie Conradie en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2023/10/07/control-tricks-for-tailsitters/
Four Investing Tricks Every Woman Should Know

First making her name as the ‘broke millennial’ blogger, Erin Lowry has grown up since her early twenties. With a personal finance book under her belt, as well as TV spots, snazzy profiles and guest-spots on podcasts, Lowry turned her focus from money 101 to investing…and boy are we glad she did.

Erin Lowry.

With succinct prose and personal anecdotes, the personal finance writer aims to demystify investing with her latest tome, "Broke Millennial Takes on Investing: A Beginner's Guide to Leveling Up Your Money."

Written as a prescriptive advice, the book progresses from the basics (like, what exactly is an ETF?) to more advanced concepts (like the best way to whether a market downturn). The millennial wanted to write something both for the person who didn’t know the first thing about a 401 (k) as well as the person who knows about investing but wants to advance their knowledge.

Fresh off her book tour, I caught up with Lowry over the phone. Our interview was edited and condensed.

Erin Lowry.

Alexandra Talty: In the book, you talk about the concept of being risk adverse. There are countless studies on how women can be more risk adverse than men when it comes to investing. Do you have any tips to over come that initial fear?

Erin Lowry: It’s natural to be risk adverse in the beginning…regardless of gender

You don't know what you’re doing yet. It’s not something that we are taught in school. There’s not often someone there to hold our hands.

Most of us start investing with our retirement accounts. I don’t know about you, but I was not given any sort of assistance by my employer. It was just me and the name of a ton of different investments options. That’s a little overwhelming and intimidating.

There are a couple of things you can do when you are first getting started. One thing to consider is a target date fund which is sometimes known as an all-in-one-fund or a lifecycle fund.

The advantage of doing a target date fund when you’re getting started is that it makes sure your money is actually invested. There are horror stories of people just leaving their retirement money in cash, thinking that it was invested.

A target date fund is simply put, a fund that is tied to an approximate year when you are planning to retire. It removes the burden of having to make a decision of what you’re investing in. So hypothetically, if you’re planning to retire in 2045 then it’s automatically going to invest more aggressively in the beginning, then a bit more moderately and then to the more conservative investments towards your 2045.

The downside of the target date fund is that the fees are typically higher. It’s not tailored specifically to you and your goals and your risk tolerance.

If you have no idea what you’re doing and just want to make sure your money is invested, a target date fund is a good option. You can always re-balance your portfolio at a later date. There’s no rule that says once you go into a target date fund that you have to stay there forever.

Another thing that I recommend people do is to go to Investor.gov. Go to the compound interest calculator play around with the numbers. See how much less you have to save if you are investing your way to a million dollars. It’s really hard to save your way to wealth.

AT: You've talked about some tools like micro-investing or practice investing apps. Do you think using those can help people become less risk adverse?

EL: I think they can. The only concern I have is if you get into the market at a bad time. Say your first three months of investment are a time when we happen to be going through a market correction. You’re just seeing negative numbers and negative returns and red arrows pointing down. I would hate to have someone’s first at bat be a very negative experience like that.  

Couple whatever you are doing with a lot of reading and education.  I love going through the history of the stock market. It is cyclical. There are ups, there are downs. That is part of the economic growth cycle.

Also, micro-investing shouldn’t be your primary means of investing. It is a good way for people to get started and get some learning.

ACT: You use this term in the book “having your financial oxygen mask on” to refer to people who’ve paid off most of their student loans or at least the ones above 5% interest, who have an emergency funds and aren’t carrying any credit card debt.

Sometimes, these people will just be investing in their retirement and not investing in other things. What advice would you give to someone who is ready to make that pivot?

Erin Lowry.

EL: If you’re ready to be investing in what’s called taxable accounts I would say the very first step is setting your goals.

What do you want this money to be doing? Because that is going to dictate how much risk you are putting on your money and what kind of investments you are selecting. Without that information, you cannot be making educated choices.

It is also easy to say, 'oh my car is going to quit on me in the next two to three years, well I want to be earning more than my average savings account, let me invest this money.' Truthfully, you probably don’t want to invest that money that you know you’re going to need in two years.

If it’s a goal that is seven to ten years away – then yeah, it makes sense to be investing at least in the beginning. Get some growth on it and then you can get it into something a bit more conservative as you start to reach the end of what we call your time horizon.

ACT: There’s a lot of talk about the gender pay gap and the retirement saving shortfall for women. But there’s also this idea of getting in the investment game early on as a way for women to offset these economic realities.

EL: It would be wonderful for the wage gap to close. For all sorts of inequality for parity to take effect. But we can’t wait around for that to happen.

The advantage of starting young is huge. Then you’re taking advantage of time and compound interest.

Mon, 29 Jul 2019 22:30:00 -0500 Alexandra Talty en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandratalty/2019/07/30/four-investing-tricks-every-women-should-know/
Old Casio Calculator Learns New Tricks

[George Stagg] recently found himself stung by the burden of free time while in lockdown. Needing a project to keep him occupied, he decided to upgrade his 90s Casio CFX-9850G calculator to run custom machine code.

All [George] really wanted was for his vintage calculator to understand Reverse Polish Notation (RPN). The calculator in question can already run its own version of BASIC, however the bespoke Hitachi CPU struggles performance-wise with complex programs, and wouldn’t be a realistic way of using RPN on the calculator. An RPN interpreter written in assembly language would be much faster.

The first step in cracking this calculator wide open was a ROM dump, followed by writing a disassembler. Incredibly, the MAME framework already featured a ‘partial implementation’ of the calculator’s CPU, which was a much needed shot in the arm when it came time to write a full-featured emulator.

With the entire calculator emulated in software, the plan from here involved replacing one of the BASIC commands in ROM with new code that would jump to an address in RAM. With 32KB of RAM there ended up being plenty of room for experimentation, and uploading a program into RAM was simplified by using Casio’s original backup software to dump the RAM onto a PC. Here, the contents of RAM could be easily modified with custom code, then uploaded back into the calculator.

With RAM to burn, new routines were created to write custom characters to the screen, and a new font was created to squeeze more characters onto the display than normal. [George] ended up porting a Forth interpreter, which defaults to RPN style, to finally achieve his humble objective. He also managed to get a version of Conway’s Game Of Life running, check out the video after the break.

We can’t get enough of our calculator hacks here, so make sure to check out the CPU transplant on this vintage Soviet calculator.

[Many thanks to Adrian for the hot tip]

Wed, 06 Apr 2022 12:26:00 -0500 Chris Wilkinson en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2022/04/06/old-casio-calculator-learns-new-tricks/
These Tricks for Softening Butter Actually Work No result found, try new keyword!Don't worry, because we're here to help with some quick and easy tricks for softening butter. But first—why exactly do you need to know how to soften butter? If your butter is too cold ... Thu, 21 Dec 2023 08:32:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/ LPI Capital Bhd 8621

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Tue, 02 Jan 2024 09:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.morningstar.com/stocks/xkls/8621/dividends




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