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ABEM-EMC ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate

Test Detail:
The ABEM-EMC (ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate) is a certification exam offered by the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM). It is designed to assess the knowledge, skills, and competence of physicians specializing in emergency medicine. The exam evaluates the candidate's ability to diagnose and manage a wide range of emergency medical conditions, make critical decisions under time constraints, and provide effective patient care in emergency settings.

Course Outline:
The ABEM-EMC certification process involves comprehensive training and preparation in emergency medicine. The course provides a thorough understanding of emergency medicine principles, diagnostic techniques, treatment protocols, and patient management strategies. While the specific course content may vary, the following is a general outline of the key topics covered:

1. Emergency Medicine Fundamentals:
- Introduction to emergency medicine as a specialty.
- Principles of emergency medical care and patient triage.
- Legal and ethical considerations in emergency medicine.
- Communication and teamwork in emergency settings.

2. Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis:
- Comprehensive patient evaluation and history-taking skills.
- Physical examination techniques specific to emergency medicine.
- Diagnostic imaging interpretation and ordering appropriate tests.
- Differential diagnosis and recognition of emergent conditions.

3. Emergency Procedures and Skills:
- Mastery of essential emergency procedures (e.g., intubation, CPR).
- Advanced life support techniques and algorithms.
- Management of trauma, cardiac emergencies, respiratory distress, etc.
- Procedural sedation and analgesia in the emergency department.

4. Medical and Trauma Emergencies:
- Recognition and management of common medical emergencies.
- Identification and treatment of trauma-related injuries.
- Approach to pediatric emergencies and neonatal resuscitation.
- Critical care principles in the emergency department.

5. Emergency Department Operations:
- Effective management of an emergency department.
- Resource allocation and patient flow optimization.
- Disaster management and emergency preparedness.
- Quality improvement initiatives in emergency medicine.

Exam Objectives:
The ABEM-EMC exam assesses the candidate's knowledge and competence in various aspects of emergency medicine. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Clinical Knowledge and Skills:
- Demonstrating an understanding of emergency medicine principles.
- Applying diagnostic reasoning and clinical decision-making skills.
- Managing emergent conditions and critical care situations.

2. Patient Management and Communication:
- Providing effective and compassionate patient care in emergency settings.
- Communicating clearly and efficiently with patients, families, and healthcare teams.
- Demonstrating professionalism and empathy in challenging situations.

3. Emergency Procedures and Interventions:
- Performing essential emergency procedures accurately and safely.
- Implementing evidence-based treatment protocols and algorithms.
- Managing resuscitation efforts and responding to life-threatening emergencies.

4. Emergency Department Operations:
- Demonstrating knowledge of emergency department operations and logistics.
- Participating in multidisciplinary team collaborations.
- Prioritizing tasks and resources effectively in a fast-paced environment.

The ABEM-EMC certification program includes a detailed syllabus that outlines the specific topics covered in the exam. It encompasses a broad range of emergency medicine knowledge and skills. The syllabus may cover the following areas:

- Emergency medicine fundamentals and principles.
- Clinical assessment and diagnosis in emergency settings.
- Emergency procedures and life-saving interventions.
- Management of medical and trauma emergencies.
- Emergency department operations and administration.
- Patient communication and professionalism.
- Legal and ethical considerations in emergency medicine.
ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate
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Podiatry-License-Exam-Part-III Podiatry License Exam Part III - 2023 offer valid and updated ABEM-EMC Practice Test with Actual Exam Questions and Answers for new syllabus of ABEM-EMC ABEM-EMC Exam. Practice our ABEM-EMC Real Questions and Answers to Improve your know-how and pass your exam with High Marks. We make sure your achievement in the Test Center, masking all of the topics of exam and build your Knowledge of the ABEM-EMC exam. Pass 4 sure with our correct questions.
ABEM Emergency Medicine Certificate
Question: 163
Which of the following is not part of the Revised Trauma Score?
A. Glasgow Coma Scale
B. Pulse rate
C. Respiratory Rate
D. Systemic blood pressure
Answer: B
The Revised Trauma Score is made up of a three categories: Glasgow Coma
Scale, Systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate. The pulse rate has no relation
to trauma score.
Question: 164
Which number would you likely see a in a patient that would likely be deceased
and all care should be withheld from this patient?
A. 9
B. 7
C. 5
D. 3
Answer: D
Patient is dead if the score is 3.They should not receive certain care because they
are highly unlikely to survive without a significant amount of resources
Question: 165
Trauma centers vary in their specific capabilities and are identified by "Level"
designation. Which of the following is the highest level for a Trauma Center?
A. Level (I)
B. Level (II)
C. Level (III)
D. Level (V)
Answer: A
Level I trauma center provides the highest level of surgical care to trauma
patients. Being treated at a Level I trauma center increases a seriously injured
patients chances of survival. Level v is the lowest.
Question: 166
Which level of trauma center does not have the full availability of specialists, but
does have resources for emergency resuscitation, surgery, and intensive care of
most trauma patients?
A. level (IV)
B. level (V)
C. level (III)
D. level (II)
Answer: C
According to the levels. A Level III trauma center does not have the full
availability of specialists, but does have resources for emergency resuscitation,
surgery, and intensive care of most trauma patients. A Level III center has transfer
agreements with Level I or Level II trauma centers that provide back-up resources
for the care of patients with exceptionally severe injuries.
Question: 167
When triaging patients which of the following should be transported first
A. Red triage
B. Yellow triage
C. Green triage 3
D. Trauma triage has no role in transfer.
Answer: A
Triage is assignment of degrees of urgency to wounds or illnesses to decide the
order of treatment of a large number of patients or casualties. Red triage needs
immediate lifesaving intervention because these are the patients who cannot
survive without immediate intervention .
Question: 168
A 25 year old male was hit by a cricket ball on his head a brief interval of
dizziness and then recovered on examination he was unconscious his GCS is 8 his
left pupil is slightly dilated and sluggish in reaction to light where the patient
should be referred for proper treatment ?
A. Basic health unit
B. Rural health center
C. Tertiary care teaching hospital
D. All of these
Answer: C
This is a case of extradural hematoma and the patient should be referred to tertiary
care hospital where all facilities exists for proper treatment of extradural
Question: 169
Which triage tag in trauma requires lowest attention and transfer to hospital
during a medical emergency or disaster?
A. Red
B. Yellow
C. Green
D. Black.
Answer: D
Black color shows dead it is important to prevent the expenditure of limited
resources on those who are beyond help. Their transfer to hospital is less
important than who requires medical treatment Yellow color indicates non-life
threatening injuries and their treatment can be delayed Green color indicates
minor injuries.
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Medical Certificate information hunger - BingNews Search results Medical Certificate information hunger - BingNews How to Know What Medical Information to Trust

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This article is part of WebMD’s contributor program, which lets people and organizations outside of WebMD submit articles for consideration on our site. Have an idea for a submission?  Email us at [email protected].

Thu, 02 Dec 2021 18:05:00 -0600 en text/html
We’ve never understood how hunger works. That might be about to change.

You haven’t seen hungry until you’ve seen Brad Lowell’s mice. 

A few years ago, Lowell—a Harvard University neuro­scientist—and a postdoc, Mike Krashes, figured out how to turn up the volume on the drive for food as high as it can go. They did it by stimulating a bundle of neurons in the hypothalamus, an area of the brain thought to play a key role in regulating our basic needs. 

A video captures what happened next. Initially, the scene is calm as a camera pans slowly along a series of plastic cages, each occupied by a docile, well-fed mouse, reclining on a bed of wood chips. None of the eight mice shown are interested in the food pellets arrayed above them on the other side of a triangular metal grate that drops down from the ceiling. Which is not surprising, since each mouse has just consumed the rodent equivalent of a Thanksgiving dinner.

But as the seconds displayed on a timer at the bottom of the screen tick away, half the mice begin to stir—the first evidence that a chemical agent designed to turn on specific neurons associated with appetite is reaching its targets. 

Soon, the mice seem possessed. Some stand on their hind legs, thrusting their noses through the grates above them at the inaccessible pellets. Others climb the walls, hang from the bars of the grate, or dig frantically through the wood chips.

“It looks like they’re losing their minds,” Lowell says.

Lowell, who is one of the world’s leading experts on the circuits in the brain that control hunger, satiety, and weight regulation, sometimes references this video to make a point: When you’re starving, hunger is like a demon. It awakens in the most ancient and primitive parts of the brain and then commandeers other neural machinery to do its bidding until it gets what it wants. 

“Sure, we managed to have the brain say ‘Go eat,’” Lowell says. “But that’s not really an explanation. How does that actually work?”

What might begin as a small sensation quickly spirals. Intrusive thoughts pulled from our memory centers burst into our consciousness. Images of meatball sandwiches. The smell of bread. The imagined taste of a cork-like food pellet. The motivational and emotional areas of our brain infuse the need to eat with a nonverbal imperative that feels so powerful it eclipses all else. Our prefrontal cortex kicks into gear, considering how we might obtain food. (If we are in a dangerous situation like a war zone, we weigh how much danger we are willing to risk to get it.) Then we mobilize our sensory and motor areas. We steal a chicken, attempt to spear a fish in a pond, raid the work refrigerator, or hurl our body against a metal grate, hoping to get a taste of a food pellet.

So by exciting the hunger neurons in those mice, Lowell catalyzed a storm of neural activity that spread to the cerebral cortex and other higher-order processing centers, leading directly to a chain of complex goal-directed behaviors (ineffective though they turned out to be). 

It also drove home for Lowell just how much we still have to learn. 

“Sure, we managed to have the brain say ‘Go eat,’” he says. “But that’s not really an explanation. How does that actually work?” 

To answer that question, Lowell has teamed up with Mark Andermann, a neuroscientist who studies how motivation shapes perception (and who also happens to occupy the office next to his at Boston’s Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center). Together they are following known parts of the neural hunger circuits into uncharted parts of the brain, in some cases activating one neuron at a time to methodically trace new connections through areas so primitive that we share them with lizards. 

Their work could have important implications for public health. More than 1.9 billion adults worldwide are overweight and more than 650 million are obese, a condition correlated with a wide range of chronic health conditions, including diabetes, fatty liver disease, heart disease, and some types of cancer. Understanding the circuits involved could shed new light on the factors that have caused those numbers to skyrocket in recent years.

Bradford Lowell in the lab
Neuroscientist Brad Lowell has spent decades trying to understand the brain circuitry that explains hunger.


And it could also help solve the mystery behind a new class of weight-loss drugs known as GLP-1 agonists. Many in the field of public health are billing these drugs, which include Wegovy and Ozempic, as transformative, providing the first effective method of combating obesity, and allowing some individuals to lose more than 15% of their body weight. They’ve also become something of a cultural phenomenon; in the last three months of 2022, US health-care providers wrote more than 9 million prescriptions for the drugs. Yet no one can explain precisely how and why they work. Part of the reason is that scientists still ­haven’t decoded the complex neural machinery involved in the control of appetite. 

“The drugs are producing the good effects, the satiety effects, through some aspect of this larger system,” says Lowell, who has watched their emergence with surprise and genuine fascination. “One of the most important components in figuring out how they work is to define what the system is. And that is what we are doing.” 

But the ultimate goal for Lowell and Andermann is far loftier than simply reverse-engineering the way hunger works. The scientists are searching for the elusive bundle of neurons that allow our instinctual urge to eat to commandeer higher-­order brain structures involved in human motivation, decision-­making, memory, conscious thought, and action. They believe identifying these neurons will make it possible to study how a simple basic impulse—in this case, a signal from the body that energy stores are beginning to run low and need to be replenished—propagates through the brain to dominate our conscious experience and turn into something far more complex: a series of complicated, often well-thought-out actions designed to get food.

This quest has so consumed Lowell in recent years that his graduate students have coined a term for the elusive bundle of brain cells he is seeking: “Holy Grail” neurons. 

It might sound like a tired scientific trope. But for the understated Lowell, the term is perfectly apt: what he’s seeking gets at the very heart of human will. Finding it would be the culmination of decades of work, and something he never imagined would become possible in his lifetime. 

The hunger mystery

Brad Lowell likes to joke that he is the token local at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Born in the hospital next door to where he now conducts research, he grew up 25 miles north in the town of Boxford and attended the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, a couple of hours’ drive away. 

Soon after arriving at UMass as an undergrad in the late 1970s, he was accepted into the physiological psychology lab of Richard Gold, a pioneering neuroscientist who was working to identify neural structures involved in regulating appetite. 

Gold’s focus was the hypothalamus—a primitive structure deep in the brain that hasn’t changed much through evolution. It is thought to be responsible for keeping the body in “homeostasis” by monitoring and balancing important functions like body temperature, blood pressure, our need for food and water, and other basic drives. 

Gold suspected that the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), a tiny patch of roughly 50,000 neurons in the hypothalamus, played a role in controlling appetite. By today’s standards, the tools to study it back then were “stone age”—Lowell says he used a “retracting wire knife” to sever bundles of neuronal projections that emanated from the PVH and connected to neurons outside it—but they were effective. When the anesthetized rodents Lowell had operated on woke up, they were crazed with hunger, and they quickly became obese. 

The experience made a lasting impression. Lowell, then an athletic 19-year-old soccer aficionado, had always assumed that anyone who was overweight was just “lazy.” The experiment suggested there was likely far more to it than that. It also convinced Lowell to become a scientist. 

But further research into how precisely the brain worked to control hunger and satiety had reached something of an impasse. 

“Gold and a few other labs put the PVH on the map as a site required to restrain what you eat,” Lowell explains. “But they didn’t have the tools to look any further.”

Figuring out which of the 50,000 neurons in the PVH were actually important to appetite, the ones that could essentially mute the hunger switch, was a challenge that seemed insurmountable—akin to, as Lowell puts it, trying to untangle a “huge bowl of spaghetti.” 

“How do you differentiate one strand of spaghetti from another? These being neurons, right?” he asks. “There’s no way. They all look the same.”

When Lowell opened his own lab at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in the early 1990s, after earning an MD and PhD at Boston University, he studied metabolism in tissues like muscle, organs, and fat that were connected to the brain through the peripheral nervous system. But his undergrad experience in Gold’s lab nagged at him.

“The brain is the Lord of the Rings,” Lowell says. “It’s the one ring that rules them all. And it was not that interesting to study these other things with the master player up there.” 

Chart titled, Mapping the hunger-satiety circuit: How do subconscious signals make it to the conscious part of the brain." Part one shows the Hypothalamus containing the Hunger/satiety hormones, Leptin which excites satiety producing neurons, and Ghrelin which excites hunger producing neurons. These neurons are both located within the Arcuate Nucleus and they inhibit each other. The melanocortin neurons that make up the PVH (paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus which acts as a Satiety Switch. High activity in the PVH causes the feeling of satiety; low activity causes hunger. In the second section is the Brain stem where the melanocortin neurons of the PVH have excited the "Holy Grail" neurons of the parabrachial nucleus, containing tens of thousands of unmapped neurons which also receives input from the gut and acts as a way station to higher-order brain areas. Although much of this area remains unmapped, the area is thought to pass information to subcortical structures involved in emotioon and reward, eventually reaching the Cortex where we experience Conscious, Action-Oriented Activity.

The entry point

Early in his career, Lowell envied his colleagues who studied vision. For decades, neuroscientists had been able to trace the neural circuits involved in that function by shining light into the eyes of mice, identifying which neurons lit up, and then following them to map out the relevant brain circuits. Lowell and his peers who were interested in hunger had never had a similar entry point. 

That changed in 1994, when Jeffrey Friedman, a researcher at Rockefeller University, gave Lowell and others a way to identify the first important neurons—or individual “strands of spaghetti”—involved in hunger regulation. 

Back in 1949, scientists at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, had bred mice with an unidentified genetic mutation that caused them to grow massively obese. They hypothesized that the obesity stemmed from the mice’s inability to produce a crucial protein involved in weight regulation.

Decades later, Friedman was the first to apply cutting-edge genetic technologies to clone the DNA sequences that were abnormal in the obese mice; he then confirmed that their obesity was caused by an inability to produce a key hormone released by fat cells, which the brain uses to track the body’s available energy stores. Friedman purified the hormone and named it leptin. He also identified the DNA sequence needed to make the leptin “receptor”—the specialized proteins that stick out of brain cells involved in appetite regulation like microscopic antennae, sensing whenever leptin is present and kicking off a chemical cascade that promotes a sense of satiety. 

The discovery added further evidence to the idea that obesity was biologically determined, and more specifically to the concept of a “set point” when it comes to weight—a predetermined weight, fat mass, or other measurable physiological characteristic that the body will defend. Appetite is the means by which the body performs “error correction” and mobilizes to devote energy and attention to the task of restoring homeostasis. 

A “cure” for obesity suddenly seemed within reach. The biotech firm Amgen licensed the rights to leptin for $20 million, hoping to develop a drug that could mimic its effects. But the drug it came up with had very little effect on most people with obesity, suggesting that leptin was only part of the story—a hypothesis that seemed to be confirmed when other labs discovered additional hormones and signals that seemed to be involved in hunger. Further experiments showed that many obese humans in fact had normal or high levels of leptin.

It stood to reason, then, that somewhere in the brain leptin was being combined with other signals related to available energy, and that this information would then have to be compared with a homeostatic “set point.”

This suggested a highly complex set of neurological circuits involved in hunger regulation. Understanding how this process worked would require a detailed wiring diagram that might explain how all the parts fit together. And while Friedman’s discoveries regarding leptin didn’t answer all the questions, they provided the entry point that Lowell and the rest of the field had been waiting for, allowing them to begin to draw such a map.

Following the path of leptin, scientists in other labs found the hormone’s first target, and therefore the first important way station in the hunger circuit: a specific patch of neurons known as the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Located at the base of the hypothalamus, the ARC, we now know, integrates information coming from other brain structures, as well as circulating nutrients and hormones like leptin and insulin. All of these inputs convey key information about the current state of the body, such as the level of existing energy stores and nutrient availability.

Determining how the ARC worked—and where it sent information after taking it in—was the next question facing the field. By then, Lowell had abandoned studies on peripheral systems and joined the hunt.

Switching hunger on and off 

In 1997, the next part of the puzzle fell into place after Roger Cone, then a researcher at Oregon Health and Science University, discovered a key part of the switch that essentially turned hunger on and off. 

He bred mice with a gene mutation that interferes with another class of key signaling proteins, called melanocortins. Mice with this mutation more closely resembled obese humans than did mice with leptin mutations: their obesity set in relatively late, and they had diabetes-causing levels of insulin and glucose. This particular mutation prevented key receptors from detecting melanocortin hormones, which in turn interfered with the feeling of satiety and caused mice to continue to eat. But when these melanocortin receptors were functioning normally, detecting the presence of the melanocortin hormones seemed to turn down appetite. In essence, Cone had found the brain’s “satiety switches.”

This discovery was critical in helping scientists determine how leptin worked its magic in the ARC, the first stop in the hunger circuit. It turned out that when leptin reached the ARC, it set off a biochemical chain reaction that caused more melanocortin hormones to be released, eventually activating these “satiety switches.” 

But these satiety switches were not present just in the ARC; they were on neurons distributed throughout the hypothalamus, the hindbrain, and the forebrain, suggesting that one of these areas was the next key hub in the hunger circuit. So which one was it?

It still did not answer perhaps the most fascinating question of all: How did these signals eventually make it into the conscious parts of the brain?

Some of these switches were in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus—the brain area Lowell had studied in the lab of Richard Gold as an undergraduate. Since Lowell had seen with his own eyes that mice ate voraciously if you took it offline, he had long believed the PVH to be a stop in that circuit. 

Now he had the tools to prove it. Over the years, Lowell had developed an expertise in cutting-edge genetic engineering techniques that allowed him to target and delete specific genes and create new strains of “knockout” mice—meaning specific genes had been knocked out in an embryo, causing a mouse to be born without a functional copy. 

In 2005, Lowell and a colleague, Joel Elmquist, engineered mice to carry a genetic sequence that prevented them from making functional copies of satiety switches anywhere in the brain. As expected, the mice grew obese. 

Lowell and Elmquist then created pairs of microscopic molecular scissors. Using genes unique to neurons in the PVH as a homing beacon, they programmed these scissors to seek out only DNA associated with PVH neurons and snip away the small sequence that prevented the development of functional satiety switches in that part of the brain. In other words, they “fixed” the satiety switches in the PVH, while they remained disabled in the rest of the brain. If the PVH was where the magic happened, restoring the satiety switches there would fix the problem of obesity. 

Indeed, Lowell’s knockout mice were effectively “cured” of obesity—confirming his hypothesis. He had proved that the PVH was the next key relay point in the hunger-satiety circuit. 

For Lowell, confirming the PVH’s place in the circuit was huge‚ but it still did not answer perhaps the most fascinating question of all: How did these signals eventually make it into the conscious parts of the brain, the parts that could make an animal take action to get food? How did hunger, in other words, manage to commandeer the neural machinery of those crazed mice? How do intrusive thoughts of a meatball sandwich compel someone to put on shoes and a coat and track one down?

To find out, Lowell needed to determine where the signals in the PVH led, in the hopes that if he continued to follow the string it would lead him to the gateway to higher-order brain structures. This was complicated by the fact that neurons in the PVH sent signals to a number of different areas, including the brain stem, regions that affect thyroid function, and others. 

Lowell was stymied. “We could knock out these genes and then measure how much food the mice ate or measure how fat they got, but we couldn’t go much further,” he says.

A magic “remote control”

In the summer of 2009, four years after the PVH discovery, Lowell was visiting Colgate in upstate New York with his high-school-age son. Lying on the grass outside the administrative building while his son did an interview, he flipped open the latest issue of the scientific journal Neuron. An article detailed a new laboratory tool developed by Bryan Roth at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: a “chemical-genetic remote control” that could be used to turn specific neurons on and off in mice. Lowell recognized instantly it was the breakthrough he had been waiting for his entire career. 

Instead of just knocking out populations of neurons permanently in mice, Lowell could instead create new strains of mice that were bred to have this genetic “remote control” switch, allowing him to turn distinct populations of neurons on and off simply by administering a chemical agent. (A separate technique known as optogenetics also allows him to do this by beaming a specific wavelength of light into the brain through a fiber-optic cable.) He could then observe the behavioral effect of turning specific neurons on and off in real time. 

“Suddenly I was able to do things that when I was an undergraduate I never dreamed I’d be able to do,” he says. 

In 2014, Lowell used the remote-control tool to methodically turn each bundle of neurons leading out of the PVH on and off, to see which ones produced satiety. Once he identified the neurons that affected satiety, he followed them out of the hypothalamus. It led him to an area in the brain stem called the parabrachial nucleus (PBN)—the third key hub involved in the hunger-satiety circuit. 

It was a scientific watershed. Lowell had finally arrived at an area of the brain with direct connections to higher-order brain structures affecting all aspects of our conscious experience, including areas involved in motivation, reward, emotion, processing sensory stimuli, memory, selective attention, and a wide array of other functions. 

Somewhere in that area of the brain was the last way station, the “Holy Grail” neurons: those finally telling the rest of the brain to “go eat.” 

Hunting for the Holy Grail

For the past eight years, Lowell and Andermann have been looking for the PBN neurons involved in hunger. It’s a painstaking hunt—the PBN contains hundreds of thousands of neurons. Lowell’s lab is tracing the hunger-satiety circuit forward out of the PBN while Andermann’s lab works backwards toward it from the insular cortex, an area associated with the conscious experience of bodily states like hunger. The goal is to meet in the middle. 

If they can trace this circuit, then they will begin to examine how it is that a simple signal—a signal that we are hungry—works to recruit higher-order brain areas and focuses them on the completion of a task. They will have the opportunity to develop a model of how animals translate desire into action. Put simply, they might be able to characterize a complex action from beginning to end.

Mark Andermann seated
For the past eight years, neuroscientist Mark Andermann has worked with Lowell to hunt for the Holy Grail neurons.


The sheer number of neurons in the PBN makes the task daunting. It’s made even more complicated by the fact that the PBN isn’t just involved in sending hunger signals to higher-order brain processing centers but is also the final stop for scores of other impulses and needs. It is a huge way station for all sorts of information, most of which has nothing to with hunger—like sexual arousal; the sensations associated with pain; the detection of heat and cold, itches and nausea; and signals associated with a wide array of autonomic functions, including respiration, blood pressure, and temperature regulation. Each one of these signals likely has its own set of dedicated, genetically distinct neurons in the PBN. Most of these neurons have never been identified or studied. And they all look identical. 

At times, the researchers have had to trace the path of nerve impulses one neuron at a time—activating a neuron they know is part of the hunger-satiety circuit using the “remote control” technologies, and then watching to see which neurons light up in response. (The DNA of the mice he works with also contains sequences for fluorescent tracers that light up when certain neurons fire, and that light can be detected, using sophisticated optical sensing technology, through a window in the skull and then reproduced on a computer screen.) This has allowed Lowell and Andermann to reduce the number of candidate neurons he is considering from hundreds of thousands to about 10,000.

To further narrow down the possibilities, Lowell spent three years sorting these 10,000 neurons into different subtypes using their genetic signatures. He has identified 37 genetically distinct subtypes.

Now Lowell and Andermann are experimenting with subtype after subtype to see which ones are involved in the hunger circuit. 

To do so, they are exposing live mice to different conditions and watching to see which neurons fire in response. They can see if a neuron fires when, for instance, the mice are shown pictures they’ve learned to associate with a tasty treat.

Once they identify neurons that are activated in the PBN by the food cue, they are using other experimental techniques to figure out which of the 37 distinct genetic profiles these neurons carry.   

The process, which involves sacrificing the mice and dissecting their brain tissue, can be painstaking. But Lowell and Andermann insist they are closing in on their target. They hope that within the next five years they will have found the neurons they are looking for. From there, they can proceed into higher-order areas of the brain. 

The recent development of the new class of weight-loss drugs—and the experiences reported by patients—tantalizingly illustrate how much power the circuits they are tracing can have on those areas. Not only is the physical experience of hunger absent—because the drugs seem to lower the body’s “set point”—but everything else that usually goes along with hunger seems to fade away. Patients report that they are no longer plagued by intrusive thoughts of food. (These reports parallel what Andermann and Lowell are seeing in the lab. Using their neural imaging techniques, the researchers can actually tell when mice are thinking about visual cues they have seen in the last minute or hour.) 

It remains to be seen whether Lowell and Andermann’s work will actually resolve the intense debate in the field over how these drugs work, and what parts of the brain they act on. But the researchers hope that by decoding the circuit, their findings may inform the development of new generations of drugs that are even more effective and lack side effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and, in some cases, pancreatitis and changes in vision. 

Though this would be newsworthy, it’s still not what excites Lowell the most. He remains most committed to the idea that his research could yield new insights into motivation, decision-making, and a wide array of other functions—into human will and survival. To illustrate why he is excited, he talks about a video he’s seen of a hungry squirrel navigating a “Mission Impossible” course to access food; the squirrel climbs up a pole, hurls itself through the air and lands on a windmill, and shimmies through a small opening in a plastic barrier while hanging upside-down from a clothesline.  

“The squirrel isn’t operating on reflex,” he says. “It’s a totally novel environment. It has to use all of its higher processes to achieve that goal.” How does this very simple system manage to take over? 

“That’s the big question,” he says. “We don’t know how any of that works, those higher processes.”

Now that he’s finally equipped with all the tools he needs to untangle the dizzyingly complex bowl of neural spaghetti, it may just be a matter of time before he finds out. 

Adam Piore is a freelance journalist based in New York. He is the author of The Body Builders: Inside the Science of the Engineered Human, about how bioengineering is changing modern medicine.

Mon, 01 Jan 2024 20:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Medical Imaging Certificate

Gain High-demand Medical Imaging Skills

It's easy to see why the call for medical imaging professionals continues to grow. Imaging technology, using both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, is vital to medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Michigan Tech's Medical Imaging on-campus Certificate gives new graduates and experienced industry professionals thorough grounding in the basic skills essential to the principles, development, and characterization of medical imaging devices.

Who is This Certificate For?

This certificate is for qualified professionals who want to enhance their skill set and can be a foundation to continue toward a graduate degree. It is also valuable for degree-seeking students looking to develop a concentration that gives them an edge in their career path.

What You Need to Know

The graduate certificate in Medical Imaging program allows students to delve deeper into imaging requirements in biomedical applications, engineering and physics principles to specific biomedical imaging problems, imaging device development and theory of operation, and design of medical imaging tools. Develop an appreciation of the design, development, and applications of diagnostic and/or therapeutic imaging devices for biomedical applications. Get familiar with how to apply these skills in real-world problems and implement application-specific solutions.


To enroll in this certificate program, students must have a bachelor's degree in any engineering discipline. See complete admissions requirements.

Accelerated Option

Michigan Tech Bachelor's + 1 Semester = Accelerated Graduate Certificate

Current Michigan Tech undergraduates or recent alumni, get started right away. Our accelerated graduate certificates are a fast, affordable way to add graduate credentials to your bachelor's degree in as little as one semester. Be more marketable in your industry or prepare for your master's degree. Explore accelerated certificate options.


This graduate certificate requires a minimum of 10 total credits. Students may apply the credits earned for this certificate toward a graduate degree at Michigan Tech.

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Wed, 12 May 2021 11:37:00 -0500 en text/html
Medical Devices and Technologies Certificate

Learn to Innovate, Evaluate, and Regulate Health Technologies

Get the skills and competences to innovate, evaluate, and regulate biomedical devices and technologies with the graduate on-campus certificate in Medical Devices and Technologies. Medical device, medical imaging, and device packaging industries innovate medical practice and provide patients with greater agency in the management of their own health. The current drive for miniaturization of medical devices, including diagnostics and wearables, has led to renewed need for continuing education and growing job demand.

Who is This Certificate For?

This certificate is for qualified professionals who want to enhance their skill set and can be a foundation to continue toward a graduate degree. It is also valuable for degree-seeking students looking to develop a concentration that gives them an edge in their career path.

What You Need to Know

In the graduate certificate in Medical Devices and Technologies program, students learn to develop specific solutions by working with experienced faculty in the Department of Biomedical Engineering. Get the knowledge you need to design, develop, and implement diagnostic and/or therapeutic devices for biomedical applications. Understand the principles and applications of medical imaging systems, and microelectromechanical system fabrication techniques. You will also learn to assess and interpret regulatory device requirements.

If you're an experienced industry professional or a Michigan Tech graduate student interested in developing skills in this field, this program can benefit you.


To enroll in this certificate program, students must have a bachelor's degree in any engineering discipline. See complete admissions requirements.

Accelerated Option

Michigan Tech Bachelor's + 1 Semester = Accelerated Graduate Certificate

Current Michigan Tech undergraduates or recent alumni, get started right away. Our accelerated graduate certificates are a fast, affordable way to add graduate credentials to your bachelor's degree in as little as one semester. Be more marketable in your industry or prepare for your master's degree. Explore accelerated certificate options.


This graduate certificate requires a minimum of 10 total credits. Students may apply the credits earned for this certificate toward a graduate degree at Michigan Tech.

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Mon, 23 Nov 2020 21:39:00 -0600 en text/html
Graduate Certificate in Information Systems

Who is the Graduate Certificate in Information Systems program for?

Drexel College of Computing & Informatics' Post-Baccalaureate/Graduate Certificate in Information Systems is designed for professionals of all backgrounds who would like to learn how to apply and manage information systems to solve organizational problems.

This certificate can be combined with other certificates and/or courses to create the Master of Science degrees listed below.

Fast Facts

Information Systems Curriculum

IMPORTANT NOTE: Drexel operates on the quarter, not semester, system, offering classes during four 10-week terms throughout the year. 

Please visit Drexel’s Course Catalog for a full description of each required and elective course for this program. You can also find a sample Plan of Study for the certificate.

  • A completed application for the online format or on-campus format.
  • A four-year bachelor's degree from a regionally accredited institution in the United States or an equivalent international institution.
  • A GPA of 3.0 or higher, in a completed degree program, bachelor’s degree or above.
  • Official final transcripts from ALL Colleges/Universities attended. Please note: For students who have attended an institution outside of the US, it is highly recommended to submit a NACES approved course-by-course transcript evaluation (i.e., WES) for expedited review of your application. This approved evaluation will take the place of the transcript requirement to complete your application.
  • One letter of recommendation required, two recommended (academic, professional, or both).
  • Essay/Statement of Purpose (approximately 500 words).
  • Current Resume.
  • Additional requirements for International Students.

Please visit our Graduate Admissions section for application deadlines.

Request More Information

Be in touch with us to get answers to all your questions! We can connect you with a Recruitment Specialist, one of our Graduate Dean’s Ambassadors, or a faculty member to help. Contact our recruitment team at and we’ll get back to you soon.

Schedule a Visit or Register for an Online Information Session

Learn more about the College of Computing & Informatics experience through an online information session or an in-person visit. Contact our recruitment team to schedule your visit today by contacting us at!

Upcoming Events

There are currently no upcoming events

Sun, 10 Dec 2023 10:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Post-Baccalaureate Certificate, Pre-Medical

The undergraduate Post Baccalaureate Pre-Medical certificate is intended to give students who already possess a baccalaureate degree (bachelor's) the opportunity to complete or improve their performance in courses required to successfully apply to medical school. This is an advanced undergraduate certificate for achievement. Each student will receive one-on-one advising on course selection to tailor the certificate to their individual needs. Along with coursework, this certificate program offers advising for MCAT prep, writing the personal statement, and other aspects needed to be a successful applicant. A committee letter is offered to students who complete the certificate and apply to medical school. The certificate requires 24 credits of coursework and should be completed in 12-24 months.

Required Courses (24 credits)

Choose from the following:

For additional information, contact Carol Myers, program coordinator.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 04:04:00 -0500 en text/html
Medical Laboratory Science, Certificate

Saint Louis University's medical laboratory science certificate offers students who have already obtained an undergraduate degree in an alternate field and are pursuing a career change a certificate to become a medical laboratory professional.

The certificate has three concentration options: clinical hematology, clinical microbiology and clinical chemistry.

Curriculum Overview

SLU's medical laboratory science certificate program's curriculum provides students with a strong science background, medically applied coursework and corresponding practicum experiences in the clinical laboratory.

Each program consists of two semesters of didactic coursework at the undergraduate level, followed by a clinical practicum that varies in length between five to seven weeks. The typical program takes between 12-18 months to complete.

Clinical and Research Opportunities

Clinical internship experiences in clinical practice settings (e.g., hospitals, clinics, reference labs, etc.) are a required component of SLU's medical laboratory science certificate curricula. 


Graduates with a certificate in medical laboratory science are prepared to conduct and manage a broad spectrum of laboratory testing. Results of these tests are used to evaluate the health status of individuals, diagnose disease and monitor treatment efficacy. Graduates of this program frequently work in diagnostic, research and/or other laboratory settings.

Upon successfully completing the program, graduates are eligible for national certification by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) as categorical medical laboratory professionals.

Admission Requirements

  • Completion of a conferred degree from an institution that is accredited by one of the regional accreditation agencies is required.
  • Students must complete a combination of 30 credits (45 quarter credits) of biology, chemistry and/or medical sciences for program admission consideration.
  • A college minimum cumulative grade point average of 2.50 on a 4.00 scale, including a minimum 2.50 science/math GPA with at least a “C” in all biological sciences, chemistry and math is required.

Transcript Evaluation

Students interested in clinical hematology, clinical microbiology or clinical chemistry should contact Amanda Reed at or 314-977-8686 for transcript evaluation. 

Admission Decisions

The number of students admitted into each certificate program is based on the availability of clinical placement sites for practicum experiences. No student will be admitted until clinical placement for practicum experiences has been secured.

In the event of a limited number of available placement spots, a competitive entry process based on GPA, previous coursework, and letters of recommendation will be used to admit students. Admission decisions will be made on or before June 1 to enter the fall cohort.

All applicants must meet the professional performance standards required for the profession.

Required Background Check

Regulations require all students to complete a criminal background check and a drug test at least once during the program; either or both may be repeated as agency requirements demand. Positive results from the criminal background check or drug tests may result in ineligibility to attend clinical rotations and/or to graduate from the program. A felony conviction will affect a graduate’s professional certification and professional practice eligibility.


Tuition Cost Per Credit
Undergraduate Tuition $1,830

Additional charges may apply. Other resources are listed below:

Net Price Calculator

Information on Tuition and Fees

Miscellaneous Fees

Information on Summer Tuition

Scholarships and Financial Aid

Students who graduated with a bachelor's degree and are seeking a second bachelor's degree or post-baccalaureate certificate do not qualify for most SLU and federal financial aid. 
Financial aid may be available in the form of federal loans, which require repayment. Federal loan eligibility is based on what was borrowed as an undergraduate student. (Find more information on loan limits.) Federal loan consideration requires a completed Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). 
Information on Federal and Private Loans

View the Preferred Private Lender List


The Medical Laboratory Science program at Saint Louis University has been continuously accredited since the graduation of its first class in 1933.

We are one of the oldest programs in the nation, founded in 1929, and boast over 90 years of educational service to the medical laboratory science profession.

Program Outcomes

The program is accredited by:

National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Science 5600 N. River Road, Suite 720 Rosemont, IL 60018

phone: 773-714-8880
fax: 773-714-8886

BLS 4130 Principles & Techniques in Molecular Biology 0
BLS 4411 Fundamentals of Immunology 2
BLS 4420 Medical Immunology 2
MLS 3210 Clinical Education & Laboratory Management 2
MLS 3400 Laboratory Operations 1
Total Credits 21-23

Clinical Hematology Concentration 

BLS 3110 Urinalysis & Body Fluids 2
BLS 4210 Hematology 4
BLS 4220 Hemostasis and Thrombosis 2
MLS 3150 Urinalysis and Immunology Laboratory 1
MLS 4250 Hematology Laboratory 1
MLS 4740 Clinical Hematology Practicum 2
MLS 4750 Clinical Hematology 1
MLS 4821 Clinical Urinalysis and Phlebotomy 1
Total Credits 14

Clinical Microbiology Concentration 

BLS 4510 Medical Microbiology 4
MLS 4520 Medical Bacteriology 2
MLS 4541 Medical Mycology and Parasitology 3
MLS 4550 Medical Bacteriology Laboratory 2
MLS 4800 Clinical Microbiology Practicum 3
MLS 4811 Clinical Microbiology 1
Total Credits 15

Clinical Chemistry Concentration

BLS 3110 Urinalysis & Body Fluids 2
BLS 4110 Medical Biochemistry I 3
BLS 4120 Medical Biochemistry II 2
MLS 3150 Urinalysis and Immunology Laboratory 1
MLS 4150 Analytical Chemistry 2
MLS 4701 Clinical Chemistry Practicum 3
MLS 4710 Clinical Chemistry 1
MLS 4770 Clinical Phlebotomy Practicum 1
MLS 4820 Clinical Urinalysis Practicum 1
Total Credits 16

Continuation Standards

Students must maintain a minimum 2.50 grade point average (GPA).

Tue, 31 May 2022 05:27:00 -0500 en text/html
Global food prices declined from record highs in 2022, the UN says. Except for these two staples No result found, try new keyword!Global prices for food commodities like grain and vegetable oil fell last year from record highs in 2022, when Russia’s war in Ukraine, drought and other factors helped worsen hunger ... Fri, 05 Jan 2024 00:11:50 -0600 en-us text/html Certificate in Information Technology

The Certificate in IT Management is a four course, affordable option for professionals who need to gain or upgrade their IT skills to meet current market demands focusing on the managerial aspects of information technology.

This program is suitable for students who would like to become IT Managers, IT Project Managers, IT Consultants, IT Strategists, Chief Information Officers (CIO), or Chief Technology Officers (CTO) among others.

You will be prepared to create IT strategies that support the business, innovate with IT, and manage projects, as well as develop and maintain the IT architecture and infrastructure of an organization.


Application Process

  1. A completed admission Application and non-refundable application fee
  2. Graduate Program Advisement with an admission counselor
  3. Official Transcript(s) from a regionally accredited college or university verifying the applicant’s bachelor’s degree. Normally, a grade point average of approximately 3.0 or higher in upper division undergraduate work is expected


After completing the certificate program in IT Management, students will be able to:

  • Understand the methods used to design and implement IT solutions in modern organizations
  • Learn how to manage IT strategically in order to gain or sustain competitive advantage and business value
  • Design the IT governance, architecture and infrastructure in modern organizations
  • Learn about project management phases, knowledge areas, tools and techniques and their applications
  • Strategically manage emergent technologies in modern organizations

Program Completion Time

The certificate can be completed in as little as six months, and is based on a sequence of four 3-unit graduate courses for a total of twelve credits. This requires enrollment for at least two terms, based on 11-week term schedules. The completion time does not account for any pre-requisite courses a student may need.

Admission Requirements

The program requires a background rooted in general business, computer programming and quantitative tools.



The curriculum consists of four courses total. The following are required courses:

Students will also choose any two of the electives below:

Tuition & Fees

Fall 2023 - Summer 2024
Tuition Alumni: $480 per credit
Non-Alumni: $595 per credit
Technology Fee $60 per term
Application Fee $25 online
$50 paper
Late Registration Fee
for registration submitted after the add/drop deadline
Late Transaction Fee
for employer reimbursement applications
received after the second week of the semester
Transcript Fee $5.00 minimum
Additional fees may apply, refer to the Registrar's site

All fees are subject to change without notice. The University reserves the right to change, delete or add to this pricing schedule as deemed appropriate. Transcripts and diploma will not be released for any student who has an outstanding balance owed to Cal Lutheran.

Tue, 10 May 2022 16:12:00 -0500 en text/html Putin critic Navalny ill on hunger strike, moved to prison medical ward with respiratory illness Putin critic Navalny ill on hunger strike, moved to prison medical ward with respiratory illness - CBS News

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Alexei Navalny, the jailed Russian opposition leader who is nearly a week into a hunger strike at a penal colony, is in a medical wing suffering with a suspected respiratory illness. Russian police detained nine people outside, who were Navalny supporters that gathered outside the facility, and as Holly Williams reports authorities turned away a doctor who tried to see him.

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