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Exam Code: 300-435 Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO) Study Guide November 2023 by Killexams.com team

300-435 Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO)

Exam Description

The Automating and Programming Cisco Enterprise Solutions v1.0 (ENAUTO 300-435) exam is a 90-minute exam associated with the CCNP Enterprise, Cisco Certified DevNet Professional, and Cisco Certified DevNet Specialist - Enterprise Automation and Programmability certifications. This exam tests a candidate's knowledge of implementing Enterprise automated solutions, including programming concepts, Python programming, APIs, controllers and automation tools. The course, Implementing Cisco Enterprise Automation Solutions, helps candidates to prepare for this exam.

10% 1.0 Network Programmability Foundation

1.1 Utilize common version control operations with git (add, clone, push, commit, diff, branching, merging conflict)

1.2 Describe characteristics of API styles (REST and RPC)

1.3 Describe the challenges encountered and patterns used when consuming APIs synchronously and asynchronously

1.4 Interpret Python scripts containing data types, functions, classes, conditions, and looping

1.5 Describe the benefits of Python virtual environments

1.6 Explain the benefits of using network configuration tools such as Ansible and Puppet for automating IOS XE platforms

10% 2.0 Automate APIs and Protocols

2.1 Identify the JSON instance based on a YANG model

2.2 Identify the XML instance based on a YANG model

2.3 Interpret a YANG module tree generated per RFC8340

2.4 Compare functionality, benefits, and uses of OpenConfig, IETF, and native YANG models

2.5 Compare functionality, benefits, and uses of NETCONF and RESTCONF

20% 3.0 Network Device Programmability

3.1 Implement device management and monitoring using NetMiko

3.2 Construct a Python script using ncclient that uses NETCONF to manage and monitor an IOS XE device

3.3 Configure device using RESTCONF API utilizing Python requests library

3.4 Utilize Ansible to configure an IOS XE device

3.5 Configure a subscription for model driven telemetry on an IOS XE device (CLI, NETCONF, and RESTCONF)

3.6 Compare publication and subscription telemetry models

3.6.a Periodic / cadence

3.6.b On-change

3.7 Describe the benefits and usage of telemetry data in troubleshooting the network

3.8 Describe Day 0 provisioning methods

3.8.a iPXE

3.8.b PnP

3.8.c ZTP

20% 4.0 Cisco DNA Center

4.1 Compare traditional versus software-defined networks

4.2 Describe the features and capabilities of Cisco DNA Center

4.2.a Network assurance APIs

4.2.b Intent APIs

4.2.c Multivendor support (3rd party SDKs)

4.2.d Events and notifications

4.3 Implement Cisco DNA Center event outbound webhooks

4.4 Implement API requests for Cisco DNA Center to accomplish network management tasks

4.4.a Intent APIs

4.4.b Command Runner APIs

4.4.c Site APIs

4.5 Implement API requests for Cisco DNA Center to accomplish network management tasks using these APIs

4.5.a Network discovery and device APIs

4.5.b Template APIs (Apply a template)

4.6 Troubleshoot Cisco DNA Center automation process using Intent APIs

20% 5.0 Cisco SD-WAN

5.1 Describe features and capabilities of Cisco SD-WAN vManage Certificate Management APIs

5.2 Implement a Python script to perform API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Device Inventory APIs to retrieve and display data

5.3 Construct API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Administration APIs

5.4 Implement a Python script to perform API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Configuration APIs to modify Cisco SD-WAN fabric configuration

5.5 Construct API requests for Cisco SD-WAN vManage Monitoring APIs (Including real-time)

5.6 Troubleshoot a Cisco SD-WAN deployment using vManage APIs

20% 6.0 Cisco Meraki

6.1 Describe features and capabilities of Cisco Meraki

6.1.a Location Scanning APIs

6.1.b MV Sense APIs

6.1.c External Captive Portal APIs

6.1.d WebHook Alert APIs

6.2 Create a network using Cisco Meraki APIs

6.3 Configure a network using Cisco Meraki APIs

6.4 Implement a Python script for Cisco Meraki Alert WebHooks
Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO)
Cisco Automating Study Guide

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Automating Cisco Enterprise Solutions (ENAUTO)
Answer: B
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://community.meraki.com/t5/Developers-APIs/my-API-Limit-exceed-and-key-is-not-working/td-p/64034
QUESTION 52 Which Python snippet receives a Meraki
webhook request?
Answer: D
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://github.com/CiscoDevNet/dnav3-code/blob/master/intro-meraki/meraki-07-webhooks/webhookreceiver.py
QUESTION 53 Which two types of solution are built with the Meraki Location Scanning
API? (Choose two.)
A. networking automation
B. mapping
C. guest Wi-Fi
D. Sense
E. wayfinder
Answer: BE
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://developer.cisco.com/meraki/build/wayfinding-mapwize/
Which URI with the request body of Request body: {name:Test,organizationId:,type:appliance} creates a new Meraki network called Test, when using APIs?
A. PUT https://api.meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//networks
B. POST https://api.meraki.com/api/v0/networks
C. POST https://api.meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//networks/
D. POST https://api.meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//networks
Answer: D
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://documentation.meraki.com/zGeneral_Administration/Other_Topics/The_Cisco_Meraki_Dashboard_API
QUESTION 55 With the MV Sense API, which REST endpoint
provides LUX level?
A. /merakimv/XXXX-XXXX-XXXX/light
B. /merakimv/XXXX-XXXX-XXXX/raw_detections
C. /merakimv/XXXX-XXXX-XXXX/0
D. /merakimv/XXXX-XXXX-XXXX/zones
Answer: A
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://developer.cisco.com/meraki/mv-sense/#!mqtt/lux-light-levels
QUESTION 56 Which REST endpoint is used to create a Cisco
Meraki network?
A. POST /organizations/{organizationId}/networks
B. PATCH /networks{networkId}
C. PUT /organizations/{organizationId}/networks
D. POST /networks{networkId}
Answer: A
Section: Cisco Meraki
Reference: https://documentation.meraki.com/zGeneral_Administration/Other_Topics/The_Cisco_Meraki_Dashboard_API
QUESTION 57 Which URI removes an administrator from a Meraki network
using an API call?
A. DELETE https://api/meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//admins/
B. DELETE https://api/meraki.com/api/v0/admins/
C. PUT https://api/meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//admins/?delete=
D. DELETE https://api/meraki.com/api/v0/organizations//admins/
Answer: A
Section: Cisco Meraki
NOTE: The options are fundamentally wrong. The answer is correct. It should be api.meraki.com/api/v0/organizations/
Reference: https://documentation.meraki.com/zGeneral_Administration/Other_Topics/The_Cisco_Meraki_Dashboard_API (see delete an administrator)
Refer to the exhibit. Which two parameters are mandatory when the Cisco Meraki API is used to create a network? (Choose two.)
A. timezone
B. disableMyMerakiCom
C. type
D. tags
E. organizationId
Answer: AE
Section: Cisco Meraki
Without organizationID and timezone, you will not be able to create a network. Organizationid is necessary for the connection. Timezone is necessary for the network id.
QUESTION 59 Which HTTP request is valid to create a new wireless network called Demo Wireless Network in the organization QASD-
Answer: A
Reference: https://documentation.meraki.com/zGeneral_Administration/Other_Topics/The_Cisco_Meraki_Dashboard_API
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This bestselling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language.

Assuming no prior knowledge of the subject, Yule presents information in bite-sized sections, clearly explaining the major concepts in linguistics – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fifth edition has been revised and updated with new figures and tables, additional topics, and numerous new examples using languages from across the world.To increase student engagement and to foster problem-solving and critical thinking skills, the book includes thirty new tasks. An expanded and revised online study guide provides students with further resources, including answers and tutorials for all tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.

Tue, 13 Jun 2023 02:25:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/us/universitypress/textbooks/yule5/study-guide
Study Guides

About the Book
Breaking Through

Like the Joad family in the Steinbeck classic, Grapes of Wrath, the Jimenez’s came to California to escape poverty and find a better life. In a short story titled "Crossing la Frontera" (the border), told from a child's point of view, Jimenez describes his family's flight from their home in a small village north of Guadalajara across the border into the United States:

“On both sides of the fence were armed guards in green uniforms. Papa called them la migra and explained that we had to cross the fence to the other side, without being seen by these men. If we succeeded, we would enter los Estados Unidos....We continued walking along the wire wall, until Papa spotted a small hole underneath the fence. Papa got on his knees and, with his hands, made the opening larger. We all crawled through it like snakes."

“A few minutes later, we were picked up by a woman whom Papa had contacted in Mexicali. She had promised to pick us up in her car and drive us, for a fee, to a place where we would find work. As we traveled north through the night, I fell asleep for a long time on Mama's lap. I woke up at dawn and heard the woman say, we're entering the San Joaquin Valley. Here you'll find plenty of work. ‘This is the beginning of a new life,’ Mama said, taking a deep breath. ‘A good life,’ Papa answered.

As it turned out, many years would pass before anyone in the Jiménez family experienced that good life. Jiménez’s father, Francisco, his mother Joaquina, and his older brother Roberto, found work picking crops in the fields. So began the cycle of moving from camp to camp, following the harvest.

The family, which eventually grew to nine children, lived in one-room shacks and tents. In the summer, they picked strawberries in Santa Maria. Then they traveled to Fresno to pick grapes in early September and on to Corcoran and Bakersfield to pick cotton in the winter. In February, they moved back to Santa Maria to thin lettuce and top carrots.

Working from sunup to sundown, the entire family earned just $15 a day. Jiménez called this nomadic existence "the circuit" in a short story by that title that has been reproduced many times in textbooks and anthologies of American literature.

"It's a symbolic circuit," he says. "If you're a migrant worker, you're constantly living in poverty. It's very difficult to get out of it."

Yet Jiménez soon found relief from the hard life in the fields and a way to escape the circuit: school. "I came to realize that learning and knowledge were the only stable things in my life. Whatever I learned in school, that knowledge would stay with me no matter how many times we moved."

Because Jiménez could not start school until after the mid-November harvest and because he knew so little English, he struggled to keep up with his classmates. One teacher even labeled him mentally retarded.

"I would start school and find myself behind, especially in English," he remembers. "School for the first nine years was very sporadic."

Still, Jiménez was luckier than his brother Roberto, who was old enough to pick cotton and therefore could not start school until February. In "The Circuit," Jiménez describes the pain of leaving his brother behind on his first day back at school:

"I woke up early that morning and lay in bed, looking at the stars and savoring the thought of not going to work and starting sixth grade for the first time that year. Since I could not sleep, I decided to get up and join Papa and Roberto at breakfast. I sat at the table across from Roberto, but I kept my head down. I did not want to look up and face him. I knew he was sad. He was not going to school today. He was not going tomorrow, or next week, or next month."

Unlike many of his classmates, Jiménez looked forward to the days he spent in school. "I had many embarrassing moments; but in spite of those, I enjoyed the environment," he says. "School was a lot nicer than home. Many times, we lived in tents with dirt floors, no electricity or plumbing. In school we had electricity, plumbing, lighting. We even had toys."
Although the physical environment was pleasant, interactions with classmates often were not. "Kids would call me spic, or greaser, tamale wrapper. They made fun of my thick accent and whenever I made grammatical mistakes. That really hurt. I withdrew and became quiet," Jiménez says.

Fortunately, Jiménez sometimes encountered a friendly teacher who recognized his desire to learn. His sixth-grade teacher, Mr. Lema, helped him with his English during lunch. Discovering that Jiménez enjoyed music, the universal language, Lema offered to teach him to play the trumpet.

But Jiménez never got his first lesson. When he went home to tell his mother and father the good news about his music lessons, he found the family's possessions neatly packed into cardboard boxes. They were moving again.

To compensate for his sporadic education, Jiménez began teaching himself. He would jot down words he was trying to memorize on a small note pad and carry it with him into the fields so he could study during his breaks.

Whenever his family visited the local public dump to collect discarded clothes, wood for a floor, and other necessities, Jiménez would pick up books. Once he found a single volume of an encyclopedia. Not realizing it was part of a 20-volume set, he leafed through its pages, figuring that if he could learn to read the whole thing, he'd know just about everything there was to know.

Wherever he was, Jiménez always knew to run and hide from la migra (Immigration and Naturalization Service agents), especially when they made their sweeps through the fields and camps.

Jiménez and his family lived in fear of being deported. His father had a visa, but the others did not; visas were too expensive. Jiménez remembers the INS officers interrogating people and sometimes beating them. When someone asked where he was born, he lied.
When he was in junior high school, INS agents entered Jiménez's classroom and arrested him as an illegal immigrant. The family was deported to Mexico but returned after several weeks with visas obtained with the help of a Japanese sharecropper who sponsored them.
Jiménez's life changed forever when he was about to enter high school. Because his father suffered from permanent back pain--probably from too many hours bent over the crops--he could no longer work in the fields. It was up to Roberto to support the family.

Roberto found a job as a janitor at a school in Santa Maria; Jiménez also worked for a janitorial company. Now the family did not have to follow the harvest. Now Jiménez could start school with the rest of the class and keep up with his studies.
"The work was indoors; and after I was done cleaning, I could study in an office," he says. "This was my chance."

With his newfound stability, Jiménez thrived. He became student-body president of his high school and earned a 3.7 GPA. A guidance counselor, disturbed that a gifted student was not going to college because the family could not afford to send him, managed to arrange for Jiménez to obtain scholarships and student loans so that he could enroll at Santa Clara University.



Before Reading the Book
Breaking Through

• Sometimes life takes an unexpected turn. With a partner, think about a dream you have for the future. Then, discuss this scenario: Imagine that your family has to relocate to another country. How would you cope with losing something – a person, a way of life, an experience? Make notes about how you would react to such a difficult situation. What plans would you make to fulfill your dreams? Discuss your revised vision of the future with your partner. As you read Breaking Through, pay attention to how Francisco deals with his own obstacles of moving to the United States and how he achieved his dreams.

Make a Connection
Breaking Through

Have students remember a time when they have had to say goodbye to someone. What positive or negative emotions did they experience?

Have students recall a time when they conquered a fear or mastered a task that was difficult for them. Discuss how they felt when they succeeded.

Have students complete this sentence: I once had to start over _____________. They may recall a project they were building or a larger challenge in life. Discuss the hardships and rewards of starting over.

Have students remember a time when they made a new friend. Discuss how valuable a friend can be in a difficult situation.

Have students think of a time when they traveled to a new place. Were they excited or anxious? Discuss the emotions associated with experiencing an unfamiliar location or landscape.

As they read, have students keep notes about the external and internal conflicts that Francisco experiences and how he deals with each one.


Reflection and Discussion Questions
Breaking Through

1. What did you learn about the experience of Mexican-American migrant farmworkers of the 1940s? What did you learn about the European-American landowners?

2. How different would this book be if it were about migrant farm workers of Mexican descent today?

3. How would these stories be different if they were told from the eyes of the father in the story? From one of Francisco’s teachers? From one of the landowners?

4. What stereotypes are there about Mexican-Americans? Mexico? Migrant farm workers?

5. What are some examples of racial prejudice in this story?

6. What are some examples of power in this story? How is it used?

7. There is great controversy in many communities about "English - only" education. What are the arguments about it? Who is making the arguments? Who has power in these arguments and how are they using this power? What do you think about the "English - only" debate?

8. What do you know of migrant farm workers in your community? Of Mexican-Americans? How could you find out more? What do the Mexican-Americans in your community express as their needs (if they are heard in your community)?

9. This book is for adults and children. If you were giving this book as a gift to a child what would you want the child to know about the book and how young a child would you give this book to?

10. In the section about the author, Jimenez talks about being given The Grapes of Wrath as a teenager and realizing it was the first book he had read to which he could relate. What are the stories of your cultural heritage and when did you read them? What stories are the children in your community being asked to read and does it relate to their cultural heritage? What values does this book share in its telling? How would you and folks from your congregation greet migrant farm workers such as Francisco’s family if they showed up in church? How is this book helpful in unlearning racism?

11. What questions do you still have that you would like the group to discuss?

12. What do you still wish to know more about and will explore on your own?

13. What did you like most and least about the book?

14. What did you feel and learn about yourself?


Things to Discuss
Breaking Through

Overall Reaction
1. How did the story impact you and what did you learn from the book?

2. What do you think contributed to the author Breaking Through successfully?

Comparing the Immigrant Experience
1. If you are an immigrant to this country how was Professor Jiménez’s life story similar or different than your own story?

2. If you were born in this country, how has your life or your family’s been similar to or different from the Jiménez family?

3. Given that the story was written about events nearly 45 years ago, how do you think things are similar or different for immigrants in 2003?

4. Given the continuous controversies surrounding immigration laws in the state and country, are there any changes you think need to be made?

The Role of Our Community in Educating Our Children
1. What teachers made an impact in your life and why?

2. Should the community play a role in supporting the education of ALL students?

3. What suggestions do you have for assisting and improving bilingual education?

Relating One's Own Personal Story
1. What times have there been in your life when you have had a Breaking Through experience?

2. What helped you succeed?

1. As a result of the Silicon Valley Reads-One Book One Community project, what impact do you think reading and discussing the book will make on you or the community as a whole?

2. Do you have any suggestions for future book selections for the community?


Breaking Through

Authors often use symbols – people, places, or things that have their own meaning and also stand for something else to deepen a story’s message. Francisco Jiménez quotes Thomas Mann, Dr. Faustus in the beginning of the book – What is the symbolism Jiménez is trying to get across?

“There is at bottom only one problem in the world…
How does one break through?
How does one get into the open?
How does one burst the cocoon and become a butterfly?”


Breaking Through

Students will see the following themes, or main ideas, developed in detail in Breaking Through.

• Breaking down barriers
• Striving for a better way of life
• Helping to support your family
• Having a strong work ethic
• The value of education
• Being respectful to others
• Encountering racism
• Being proud of your heritage
• Making friends and becoming a leader at school
• Having your parents rely on you for many things
• Trying to balance the traditions of your family with a new set of values and a different way of life
• Working hard to fulfill your dreams
• Writing a story about your life

Tue, 25 Jan 2022 02:02:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.scu.edu/fjimenez/study-guides/
How to Automate Payroll No result found, try new keyword!A 2009 study commissioned for APA by the ... and project tracking solutions. The following guide will review the benefits of payroll automation and some of the options for automated payroll ... Sun, 12 Nov 2023 03:23:00 -0600 text/html https://www.inc.com/guides/2010/12/how-to-automate-payroll.html A Computer Weekly buyer's guide to automating business processes

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December 2020

Automating business processes can save time and money. In this 15-page buyer's guide, Computer Weekly looks at how BPA can expand into new areas, the opportunities artificial intelligence has to offer and why it's so important to assess what's working optimally.

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  • Automating an inefficient process simply leads to a faster inefficient process, but business processes can be optimised by adding artificial intelligence to the mix.
  • Business processes evolve, and intelligent automation requires an assessment of what is not working optimally.
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Email Marketing Automation Guide

If you’re looking for a way to bring in and convert new leads, email marketing is still one of the best strategies out there. Email marketing allows you to connect with your customers and send them automated, personalized content. 

Not only is this marketing strategy an efficient way to connect with your customers, it’s the most cost effective. One study found that every $1 spent on email marketing generated an average ROI of $38. And 78% of marketers have seen an increase in their email engagement over the past year. 

Fortunately, email marketing automation is a lot easier to set up than you may think, even if you’re new to email marketing. Once you understand the basics, you’ll be well on your way to providing this benefit to your customers.

What is email marketing automation?

Email marketing involves sending targeted emails to groups of your subscribers. This could be a weekly newsletter, information about your products or services, or just general information about your company. 

Editor’s note: Looking for the right email marketing solution for your business? Fill out the below questionnaire to have our vendor partners contact you about your needs.

With email marketing automation, these emails are sent without your constant involvement. You set up automatic workflows, and when a customer signs up for a free lead magnet or makes a purchase, they will receive an email or a series of emails. 

Email marketing automation allows you to continue building a relationship with your subscribers over time. When you plan your campaign, you’ll decide who it targets and your campaign’s purpose. 

From there, you’ll decide how many emails to include and how frequently your customers will receive these emails. Once you schedule your campaign, the emails will be delivered automatically.

Email automation is just one marketing automation software feature. Other features include social media, text message and web marketing, and tracking and customer engagement functions.

Benefits of email marketing automation

These are some of the most significant email marketing benefits that going digital provides.

Reclaims your time

One of the biggest benefits of email marketing automation is that it saves you a lot of time. When you reach a certain point in your business, sending out emails manually is no longer possible. 

Email marketing automation allows you to scale your marketing efforts. You can triple your reach without tripling the amount of effort you put into it. 

Improves the customer experience

Email marketing automation isn’t just more convenient for you – it also delivers a better experience to your customers. This is because your customers’ behavior determines the type of emails they receive.

For instance, a website visitor may want to learn more about your company, but they may not be ready to have a salesperson reach out to them. So they sign up for a free guide and receive a welcome email.

That subscriber receives valuable and relevant information, and you continue building the relationship until they’re ready to move to the next step. Thanks to email marketing automation, you’re able to send information that’s personalized to their specific needs. 

Increases revenue

Data repeatedly shows that email marketing results in more revenue for your business. By sending targeted, timely emails to your subscribers, you increase the likelihood of converting someone to a customer.

For instance, marketers who used segmented campaigns saw a 760% increase in revenue, and 59% of marketers claim that email is their largest source of ROI. 

Boosts knowledge

Another benefit is that email marketing helps you learn more about your subscribers. You’ll discover the types of emails they prefer, what subject lines prompt them to open it and the type of products in which they’re interested.

As you track your email marketing campaigns, you’ll gain more insight into your audience. This information will help you create successful future marketing campaigns.

How to automate your emails

Here are the five steps you’ll take to begin automating your emails: 

1. Choose your email marketing software.

Start by choosing the email marketing software you’ll use. Here are a few to consider: 

  • Constant Contact: Constant Contact is one of the best software options available for small businesses. The pricing is based on the size of your email list, so there are affordable options if you are just getting started. You can send an unlimited number of emails, and the company has a 97% deliverability rate.
  • Benchmark Email: Benchmark Email is another low-cost option if you’re new to email marketing. The company’s plans start at just $13.99 per month if you have fewer than 600 subscribers. Every plan comes with unlimited monthly emails and various customizable templates. Plus, Benchmark integrates with more than 300 popular apps, including WordPress, Google and Shopify. 
  • Mailchimp: Mailchimp is the best free email marketing provider available. The service is free to use for up to 2,000 subscribers, and you can send 12,000 emails per month. Plus, Mailchimp provides many useful features, including A/B testing and the ability to create mobile-friendly landing pages. The email editor is also easy to use.  
  • Sendinblue: Sendinblue is a better option if you are looking for advanced features for your organization. The service has built-in marketing automation features, such as detailed workflows and custom rules, and it uses CRM and email marketing to help you manage your customer relationships and communicate more effectively. 

Check out our guide to finding the best email marketing service for you. Determine your needs and find the right partner for your business.

2. Create a welcome sequence.

Once you’ve chosen an email provider, you need to set up a welcome sequence for new subscribers. A welcome sequence is a series of emails that new subscribers will receive after they sign up. This ensures that you’re creating a good first impression with your recipients.

The content and number of emails you send will depend on your personal preferences. But the main objective of a welcome sequence is to thank your subscribers for signing up and invite them to connect with you on other platforms. 

If you’re looking to implement triggered emails for your business, read our review of Constant Contact or our Salesforce Marketing Cloud review.

3. Segment your list.

As you begin collecting more information about your audience, you’ll start segmenting potential customers into different lists. By segmenting your subscribers based on their industry, location, and how they found you, you’ll be able to deliver more personalized emails. 

4. Split-test your emails.

When you first start email marketing, it’ll take some time to figure out what resonates with your audience. One of the best email marketing campaign strategies is split-testing your emails.

In A/B testing, you send slightly different versions of the same email to different groups of subscribers. For instance, you may send the same email but test out two different subject lines, or you may try out a different call to action (CTA) to see which one is the most effective. Over time, you’ll begin to gather the information that will help you create better campaigns. 

5. Track the results of your campaign.

Anytime you start a new email marketing campaign, you want to track your results to see if your campaign was successful. You’ll want to check these key performance indicators (KPIs):

  • Delivery rate: Your delivery rate is the percentage of emails you send that ends up in your subscribers’ inboxes. Your email delivery rate should be at least 95%. If it’s lower than that, you’ll want to contact your web host to figure out why. 
  • Open rate: Your open rate is the percentage of users who received your email and actually opened it. If your open rate is on the low side, this could indicate your subject lines need some work. 
  • Click-through rate: Of the subscribers who opened your email, how many of them took the action you wanted them to take? This is known as the click-through rate, and it’s an excellent way to gauge how engaging your emails are.

To get started with email marketing automation, select the right software, set up a welcome sequence, carefully segment your list, test out email versions, and track your campaign’s results.

Best practices for using automated emails

Email marketing automation will save you time and money, but it will take some effort on your part to achieve success. Here are a few best practices to keep in mind as you move forward:

  • Always include a CTA. Every email should have a call to action. However, this doesn’t mean you should always try to get your subscribers to buy something. In fact, selling too hard is one of the most common email marketing mistakes. Often, the CTA could be something simple, like checking out a recent blog post you wrote or following your company on Twitter.
  • Follow anti-spam laws. Make sure you comply with the FTC’s anti-spam laws for commercial email. These rules require that you provide your name and address at the end of every email, and give subscribers a way to opt out of future emails. If you violate the CAN-SPAM Act, you could get hit with hefty fines. 
  • Make sure emails are optimized for mobile. Did you know that 46% of people check their email on mobile devices? For that reason, every email you send must be optimized for mobile devices.
  • Be consistent. Consistency is one of the most important aspects of email marketing success. It’s OK if you can’t build complex email sequences from day one, but you should at least send out a weekly newsletter. This lets your subscribers know what to expect and helps you build a relationship with them. 
Sun, 22 Oct 2023 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/16296-email-marketing-automation-guide.html A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Written by the Priests and Pastoral Associates of Priests for Life


This study guide is based on the Vatican Translation of Humanae Vitae


Table of Contents:



Introduction to the Study Guide

Summary of the Introduction to the Encyclical and Section I: New Aspects of the Problem and Competency of the Magisterium

A Summary of Section II. Doctrinal Principles

Summary of Section III. Pastoral Directives 

Essay: Finding Our Way Back Home

Essay: Life, Purity and Humanae Vitae

Essay: The Transmission of Life -- On Whose Terms?

The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony

Glossary of Terms




A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae

Fr. Frank Pavone, National Director, Priests for Life


Forty years is not a long time in Church history. Indeed, we are still living in the moment of Humanae Vitae (issued on July 25, 1968), and of the challenge it presents to the world.

Humanae Vitae does not identify the key problem of our day in the realm of sex or birth or "the pill," but rather in the myth that we can be God. Pope Paul writes at the beginning of the document, "But the most remarkable development of all is to be seen in man's stupendous progress in the domination and rational organization of the forces of nature to the point that he is endeavoring to extend this control over every aspect of his own life -- over his body, over his mind and emotions, over his social life, and even over the laws that regulate the transmission of life” (n.2).


The Pope here is painting a wider vision of the problem. We think everything belongs to us, but the reality is that we belong to God. "Humanae Vitae" means "Of human life." Human life came from God, belongs to God, and goes back to God. "You are not your own," St. Paul declares. "You have been bought, and at a price" (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Sex and having children are aspects of a whole cluster of realities that make up our lives and activities. We suffer from the illusion that all of these activities belong to us. “This is my life, my body, my choice.


The problem we face is not that our society is obsessed with sex. Rather, it is afraid of it-- afraid of the total reality and power of what it represents, where it comes from, and where it leads. Sex properly understood requires that we acknowledge God who made it. More than that, sex can never be separated from its purpose: to insert us into this immense, powerful movement of life and love that started when God said "Let there be light" (Genesis 1:3) and culminates when the Spirit and the Bride say "Come, Lord Jesus!" (Revelation 22:17).


Sexual activity means so much that it is wrong to diminish its message or deny its full reality: it belongs in the context of committed love (sealed by marriage) and openness to life precisely because this is the only context great enough to hold its message and reflect the greater reality to which the gift of sexuality points us and to which it commits us.


This is a reality that is bigger than all of us. It is the self-giving which starts in the Trinity, and is revealed in a startling way on the Cross, and then challenges each of us in our daily interaction with others, with God, and with our own eternal destiny. It is so real and so big that it is scary. That's why so many today are afraid of the full reality and meaning of sex. That's why Pope Paul VI wrote Humanae Vitae.


That is also why our Priests for Life pastoral team wrote this Study Guide. We have also established a special website, www.HumanaeVitae40.com, to promote the teachings of this document. It is our daily prayer that this effort will lead many believers to understand, embrace, and proclaim the beautiful truth of human life. 




James J. Pinto, Jr., M.E.V.
Editor: A Study Guide to Humanae Vitae 


This Study Guide will be most effective if one first thoroughly familiarizes himself with its content and layout. Review the table of contents and the location of each section listed. The Study Guide is to be used by an individual or group as a side by side companion with the text  of Humanae Vitae included in this booklet. The three Essays offer unique insight with questions for further discussion. The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony presents a riveting and practical witness to why Humanae Vitae is the wholesome truth.


The Glossary assists the reader in clarifying some key terms contained in the Encyclical. Glossary terms are listed by the number/paragraph in which they first appear. The terms will be marked with an *asterisk in the Humanae Vitae text as a note to the reader that the term is contained in the Glossary. 


After reading Fr. Pavone’s Foreword one should read the Summary of the Introduction and Section I, followed by the reading of the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae itself. After completing the Introduction and Section I. of Humanae Vitae; the reader answers the series of questions below the Summary of the Introduction and Section I.  The sequence followed for the Introduction and Section I is repeated for each following section: Reading the Study Guide Section Summary, reading of the corresponding Encyclical section itself and returning to the Study Guide questions for that particular section. The questions are meant to refer the reader back to particular paragraphs/numbers (n.or n.n.) of that section where he/she will find the answers. One may work on the answers to these questions while reading the paragraph/number, or, wait until he/she has read the entire section and then complete the answers. Continual returning to the text of the encyclical helps emphasize that the document itself is the primary source of instruction and the basis for individual and group applications. 


The three Essays have several questions at their conclusion to help foster reflection and discussion. A personal witness to the truth and wisdom of Humanae Vitae is presented in The Contraception of Grief: A Personal Testimony. 


This Study Guide is meant to be a “springboard” to delve more deeply into Humanae Vitae and its themes, in order to stimulate reflection, and a lifestyle of holiness. 


For those considering the possibility of facilitating a study group, this study guide lends itself to a discussion study group method of learning. While a leader/facilitator encourages the group and keeps it “on track”, it is the individual sharing and group dynamic that contribute most to the learning process. The facilitator is not a lecturer, neither is he there to give all the answers. The facilitator seeks to shepherd the group learning process and does everything possible to solicit their contributions. Members interact and learn from everyone, including the facilitator. A Facilitator’s Guide is available through Priests for Life at www.HumanaeVitae40.com. The Facilitator’s Guide seeks to assist you in leading a group and lays out suggested study sessions.


It is our hope, that on the fortieth anniversary of Humanae Vitae, this study guide will assist in promoting the Church’s clear and authoritative word on transmitting human life. May all who hear this true, prophetic and lovely word be assured that: the Church has always issued appropriate documents on the nature of marriage, the correct use of conjugal rights, and the duties of spouses. These documents have been more copious in recent times. (n.4)


Sun, 11 Apr 2021 00:44:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.catholicnewsagency.com/resource/55671/a-study-guide-to-humanae-vitae
Comparative Study: Cisco Systems And Industry Competitors In Communications Equipment Industry

Amidst the fast-paced and highly competitive business environment of today, conducting comprehensive company analysis is essential for investors and industry enthusiasts. In this article, we will delve into an extensive industry comparison, evaluating Cisco Systems CSCO in comparison to its major competitors within the Communications Equipment industry. By analyzing critical financial metrics, market position, and growth potential, our objective is to provide valuable insights for investors and offer a deeper understanding of company's performance in the industry.

Cisco Systems Background

Cisco Systems is the largest provider of networking equipment in the world and one of the largest software companies in the world. Its largest businesses are selling networking hardware and software (where it has leading market shares) and cybersecurity software like firewalls. It also has collaboration products, like its Webex suite, and observability tools. It primarily outsources its manufacturing to third parties and has a large sales and marketing staff—25,000 strong across 90 countries. Overall, Cisco employees 80,000 employees and sells its products globally.

Company P/E P/B P/S ROE EBITDA (in billions) Gross Profit (in billions) Revenue Growth
Cisco Systems Inc 17.48 4.91 3.86 9.14% $5.0 $9.75 16.04%
Arista Networks Inc 35.46 10.14 11.50 8.79% $0.55 $0.88 38.7%
Motorola Solutions Inc 32.64 142.54 5.13 129.95% $0.64 $1.19 12.29%
Nokia Oyj 4.62 0.88 0.75 1.37% $0.75 $2.18 -2.78%
Telefonaktiebolaget L M Ericsson 14.19 1.28 0.61 -0.53% $3.02 $24.1 3.17%
F5 Inc 28.66 3.51 3.39 3.31% $0.19 $0.56 4.17%
Juniper Networks Inc 20.79 1.93 1.52 0.56% $0.11 $0.81 12.64%
Ciena Corp 30.21 2.23 1.57 1.02% $0.12 $0.45 23.03%
Extreme Networks Inc 42.57 27.39 2.51 23.12% $0.05 $0.21 30.81%
Calix Inc 71.02 4.06 3.19 1.28% $0.02 $0.14 29.19%
NetScout Systems Inc 30.94 0.95 2.11 -0.21% $0.02 $0.16 1.11%
Viavi Solutions Inc 75.18 2.66 1.69 -0.01% $0.03 $0.15 -21.38%
Harmonic Inc 48.95 3.04 1.71 0.46% $0.01 $0.08 -0.94%
Digi International Inc 31.21 1.71 2.12 1.28% $0.02 $0.06 8.42%
Clearfield Inc 8.13 1.28 1.22 1.69% $0.01 $0.02 -13.99%
Aviat Networks Inc 29.56 1.53 0.98 1.53% $0.01 $0.03 17.77%
Average 33.61 13.68 2.67 11.57% $0.37 $2.07 9.48%

When analyzing Cisco Systems, the following trends become evident:

  • The stock's Price to Earnings ratio of 17.48 is lower than the industry average by 0.52x, suggesting potential value in the eyes of market participants.

  • Considering a Price to Book ratio of 4.91, which is well below the industry average by 0.36x, the stock may be undervalued based on its book value compared to its peers.

  • With a relatively high Price to Sales ratio of 3.86, which is 1.45x the industry average, the stock might be considered overvalued based on sales performance.

  • The Return on Equity (ROE) of 9.14% is 2.43% below the industry average, suggesting potential inefficiency in utilizing equity to generate profits.

  • The company exhibits higher Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA) of $5.0 Billion, which is 13.51x above the industry average, implying stronger profitability and robust cash flow generation.

  • The gross profit of $9.75 Billion is 4.71x above that of its industry, highlighting stronger profitability and higher earnings from its core operations.

  • The company's revenue growth of 16.04% is notably higher compared to the industry average of 9.48%, showcasing exceptional sales performance and strong demand for its products or services.

Debt To Equity Ratio

The debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio assesses the extent to which a company relies on borrowed funds compared to its equity.

Considering the debt-to-equity ratio in industry comparisons allows for a concise evaluation of a company's financial health and risk profile, aiding in informed decision-making.

When assessing Cisco Systems against its top 4 peers using the Debt-to-Equity ratio, the following comparisons can be made:

  • Among its top 4 peers, Cisco Systems has a stronger financial position with a lower debt-to-equity ratio of 0.19.

  • This indicates that the company relies less on debt financing and maintains a more favorable balance between debt and equity, which can be viewed positively by investors.

Key Takeaways

The valuation analysis of Cisco Systems in the Communications Equipment industry reveals that its PE, PB, and PS ratios are relatively low compared to its peers. This suggests that the company may be undervalued in terms of its earnings, book value, and sales. However, its low ROE indicates lower profitability compared to its peers. On the other hand, Cisco Systems demonstrates high EBITDA, gross profit, and revenue growth, indicating strong financial performance in these areas.

This article was generated by Benzinga's automated content engine and reviewed by an editor.

© 2023 Benzinga.com. Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Thu, 12 Oct 2023 00:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.benzinga.com/news/23/10/35224271/comparative-study-cisco-systems-and-industry-competitors-in-communications-equipment-industry
Selecting Your Program

Our programs vary in length from a week to a full academic year.  We offer short-term programs that take place during the summer, spring break, or winter break, as well as long-term programs that cover one or two semesters. 

If you are looking for a semester program, consider whether you would prefer to go abroad in the spring or fall.  Due to differences in academic calendars around the world, some programs work best for Purdue students in one semester or the other, so the search allows you to specify.  If you are open to spring and fall programs, selecting the “Semester” option will bring up results for both.

For adventurous students, we also offer programs that cover two semesters!  Many returning students say they wish they had studied abroad longer, and the cultural immersion and cost effectiveness of a year-long program can be hard to beat. 

Students interested in summer opportunities often ask if they can search for Maymester programs.  We don’t categorize these separately from other summer programs, but it’s possible to search for programs beginning in May.  See “Program Start Month” below.

Wed, 03 Jun 2020 05:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.purdue.edu/IPPU/SA/Programs/SearchGuide.html
What is Accounting Automation?

Understanding the numbers
When reviewing job growth and salary information, it’s important to remember that actual numbers can vary due to many different factors — like years of experience in the role, industry of employment, geographic location, worker skill and economic conditions. Cited projections do not guarantee actual salary or job growth.

Accounting has been a key part of businesses for centuries, helping show a company's financial health. Today, how you manage financial transactions has changed.

"Originally, every step in the accounting process was done by hand,” said Nathan Gay, MSA, CPA, an adjunct accounting instructor at Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU) who has spent over 25 years working in governmental, non-profit and grant accounting. “With automation, the most time-consuming parts of accounting are analyzing transactions and entering them into the system."

As the demand for real-time data and efficient processing grows, accounting automation will become more relied upon for its efficiency and precision.

What are Accounting Information Systems (AIS)?

Accounting has always valued accuracy, organization and trust. Traditional accounting systems were relied on by businesses to record financial transactions, but as industries evolved and the pace of business quickened, the need for more efficient systems became evident.

Embracing the wave of technological advancement, AIS rose to the forefront, offering a modern solution to the age-old challenges.

"Accounting information systems are the way accountants keep records. Today, we always think of automated systems from QuickBooks, FreshBooks, and the like,” said Dan Puhl, CMA, CPA, an adjunct accounting instructor at SNHU with over 20 years of experience with AIS, including leveraging it to build a multi-million dollar business.

“An automated accounting information system is a database. Databases are merely collections of spreadsheets — in accounting, one for each account," he said.

Traditionally, accounting is about organizing business documents in chronological order, said Julia Blockberger, MBA, CPA, an adjunct accounting instructor at SNHU who has experience working with AIS. Blockberger worked in a bank's data processing center, and has sold and installed accounting software to clients, while also providing consultation to those wanting to learn more.

By leveraging AIS, accountants can now get instant generation of financial statements and real-time data analysis, she said. When data gets entered into sophisticated systems capable of completing several tasks at once, the accounting process gets effortlessly streamlined, said Gay. With AIS the traditional accounting principles mesh with modern technology to create an optimized accounting process.

The Transition from Manual to Automated Accounting

In the past, accounting was done in ledgers filled out by hand. While rooted heavily in detail, manual accounting was a lengthy process with its own challenges.

Puhl said that generating financial reports, identifying errors and conducting audits of paper-heavy accounting systems was very time-intensive, and as a result, manual accounting has often led to prolonged decision-making.

"Julia Blockberger, an adjunct accounting instructor at SNHUManual accounting is labor intensive, and (you) are not able to make timely decisions to adjust production or pricing," said Blockberger.

Accounting automation has simplified the traditional accounting steps. Now, after you enter the initial data, software can take care of the rest, from journal entries to financial statements, Gay said.

There are many reasons for the shift to accounting automation. One of those benefits is time efficiency.

Blockberger said that automation offers immediacy — you can now review financial statements, cash flow analysis and even intricate financial ratios daily. For businesses, this means the ability to respond to economic changes almost instantaneously.

There are three other benefits, as reported by Fyle in The Ultimate Guide to Accounting Automation for Business in 2023:

  1. Reduced risk of errors: According to Fyle, computers, devoid of human dependence, can handle massive calculations and ensure data is automatically updated and accurate whenever needed.
  2. Secure, centralized storage of information: Centralized storage in accounting offers a consolidated platform where all financial data and related documents can be accessed swiftly and securely, according to Fyle. This uniformity simplifies data management, promotes consistency in financial reporting and enhances collaboration among accounting professionals. When you house all data in one place, you can implement backup and security measures more effectively, ensuring the integrity and safety of financial information.
  3. Improved cash flow management: Improved cash flow management is pivotal for businesses, allowing for more precise forecasting and real-time analytics instantly, according to Fyle. By closely monitoring and optimizing cash inflows and outflows, companies can mitigate financial risks, ensure timely settlements of liabilities and capitalize on growth opportunities.

Besides these benefits, automation may also open new opportunities for accountants. With some routine tasks handled by software, accountants can pivot towards more strategic roles, such as data analysis, trend predictions and financial forecasting.

Which Parts of Accounting Are, or Will Be, Automated?

The effects of automation in accounting are far-reaching, evolving existing roles and presenting new opportunities and challenges. With the development of new technologies, several tasks are either already automated or on the cusp of being so.

A blue infographic piece with the text benefits of accounting automation according to Fyle: 1. Reduced risk of errors; 2. Secure centralized storage of information; 3. Time efficiency; 4. Improved Cash Flow ManagementPuhl said one significant shift has been in "transactional" jobs. Processes like vendor invoicing, which were previously manual, can now be directly input into systems by vendors, thereby eliminating intermediate roles in accounts payable.

The rise of barcoding and scanning has revolutionized the sales and inventory sectors. The immediate recording of sales and the automated queueing of materials for reorder are just the tips of the automation iceberg. These advances not only streamline processes but also ensure real-time updates and accuracy.

However, the transition isn't merely about replacing manual tasks. It's about elevating the role of accountants. As tasks become more automated, the scope for accountants to take on more analytical functions becomes evident.

Blockberger said the real fun in accounting now lies in data analysis. With tools and software at their disposal, accountants can indulge in horizontal trend analysis, ratio analysis and other deep dives that were previously too time-consuming.

Gay further envisions an intersection of accounting and software development. With the increasing reliance on accounting software, there's an emerging demand for accountants with tech skills.

Automation is not just a trend; it's the evolution of the accounting field. As the boundaries of what can be automated expand, the accounting profession continues to learn about the new opportunities and challenges that come with it.

So, What Are the Risks of Accounting Automation?

While the advantages of accounting automation are substantial, it's important to understand the potential challenges that may arise too.

  • Data Security Concerns: At the top of the list is the issue of data security. With businesses relying heavily on online databases, the threat of cyberattacks looms. "Whenever you put something on a computer, someone can get in and change it," Puhl said. The interconnectedness of the internet means data breaches, hacking and phishing attacks are concerns. Defending information requires significant investment, both in terms of finances and technology.
  • Potential for Oversights: The very efficiency of automated systems can sometimes be their Achilles' heel. Blockberger recalled an instance where a client's system accepted a transaction dated back to 1920 without flagging it as an error. Minor oversights emphasize the need for internal controls in automated systems. Relying solely on the software without periodic checks could lead to such mistakes going unnoticed.
  • Human Touch and Reasoning: No matter how advanced our systems get, the human touch remains irreplaceable. As Gay said, the manual review and analysis will always have its place. AI might handle fundamental decisions and processes, but algorithms can only partially replace the intuitive understanding, reasoning and validation humans bring. For example, some situations you might want to be handled by humans, such as deciding if a transaction makes sense or determining the importance of specific financial actions.

Professionals and businesses can navigate automation with informed caution. The promise of efficiency and accuracy can be balanced with proactive measures to address potential challenges.

Will AI Replace Accountants by 2030?

With advancements in artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, there's excitement and apprehension about the future. The question lingers: Will AI replace accountants by 2030?

A blue infographic piece with the text BLS projects 67,400 new accounting jobs through 2032While AI and automation aim to streamline further and optimize accounting processes, they are unlikely to take over accounting completely. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) expects accounting jobs to increase by 4% for an additional 67,400 jobs from 2022 to 2032.*

Accounting usually needs a personal touch, Blockberger said. You need to use your judgement to decide if the transactions you're recording make sense for what you need.

As much as AI can compute, analyze and predict based on vast data sets, the multifaceted role of an accountant goes beyond mere number crunching. Accountants are advisors, strategists and partners in financial decision-making. Their insights, derived from experience, intuition and data, provide context that raw AI-driven results often won't offer.

"Humans create the programs for retrieving required information. Humans analyze data for decision-making," Puhl said.

The job of accountants is changing. The repetitive, transactional tasks will increasingly fall under AI's domain, allowing accountants to focus more on value-added services and consultancy roles. This shift isn't about job elimination but rather job transformation.

*Cited job growth projections may not reflect local and/or short-term economic or job conditions and do not guarantee actual job growth. Actual salaries and/or earning potential may be the result of a combination of factors including, but not limited to: years of experience, industry of employment, geographic location, and worker skill.

Nicholas Patterson ’22 is a writer and alumnus of Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU), where he earned his bachelor’s degree in English and creative writing. He is currently honing his craft further as he pursues an MFA in Creative Writing from SNHU. Connect with him on LinkedIn.

Wed, 15 Nov 2023 03:59:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.snhu.edu/about-us/newsroom/business/what-is-accounting-automation
Study Group Guide


  1. The Goal of Study Group Learning
  2. Benefits of Study Group Learning
  3. What to do at Your First Meeting
  4. Your Role in Your Group
  5. Common Problems and Possible Solutions
  6. Study Group Locations at UMass Lowell

The Goal of Study Group Learning

It is believed that students learn by doing. As opposed to being spoon-fed knowledge in lecture, study groups encourage students to go above and beyond what is being taught and to develop their own understanding of subject material. The goal of study group learning is to help students take ownership of course material; to learn to learn.

Benefits of Study Group Learning

  • You can verify with each other any confusing or complex subject material.
  • Learning math is more fun.
  • Math is better understood and retained.
  • Prof/TA will be seen as more approachable.
  • You will have a chance to dialogue with classmates and therefore opportunity to make friends; hopefully you will feel less isolated.
  • Fellow students can be a source of encouragement.
  • Math-anxious students will see themselves as tutor/teachers, not just recipients of someone else's knowledge.
  • An increase in confidence of mathematical ability.
  • You will have opportunity to learn new study habits from peers. In a nutshell, learning math is more personally relevant, and intellectually stimulating.

As you can see from this list, being in a study group can be really helpful. BUT these benefits come only to those who are serious about making their group work well together and serious about learning. So, although I expect you to have fun (eh, there is no reason why you can't have a study group meeting at a pub once in a while) the study group component of your course is serious stuff.

Are you interested in joining a group but don't know how to start? Talk to your classmates or instructor.

What to do at Your First Meeting

We hope that, 10 years from now, you will look back upon this first meeting of your study group with good sentiments. We realize that not all of you will form those "college-days" relationships that TV glamorizes, but some of you will. You just never know what might happen. Here are some things that will help get started on the right track:

Check off this list as you go.

  • Fill out the form called: Study Group Roster with your group members names, e-mail addresses, and phone numbers. Guard this sheet. You never know when it will come in handy (or, put the information in your funky address book...just make sure you have it.)
  • Get to know one another. How? Well, ask each other what your majors are or where you are from or how much you love to work in groups...etc. Make sure you have fun.
  • You may want to look around at the rooms that are suggested in this booklet for your study groups. You are going to spending a lot of time in these places (or wherever you hold your meetings).
  • Establish when and where you will hold your next meeting. In fact, I would advise you to decide exact dates for some of your meetings. Make dates--solid dates--right up until the end of term. This way, you will be sure to be able to keep these dates.
  • Establish a network by which you can contact each other for impromptu meetings.
  • Talk more. Give your group a name if you want.

What to Do at Other Meetings

Below is a list of things you should/can do at your meetings. Suggestions in bold I would recommend you do at every meeting.

  • Establish what you hope to accomplish at your meeting.
  • Review lecture notes together, discuss anything you did not understand.
  • Discuss key concepts from lecture.
  • Work on assignments.
  • Assign yourselves questions and work on them.
  • Study for tests or exams.
  • Discuss what questions you expect to be on tests and exams.
  • Go over copies of past exams.
  • Set aside time to talk about anything under the sun other than math.
  • At the end of each session, determine or verify location and time of you next meeting.

Your Role in Your Group

This page contains a section called Problems and Solutions. It's a good idea to read it so you know what can happen and so that you can recognize it when a problem arises. A lot of the problems can be prevented if you work hard not just at the math, but at making your group work. Below is a list of guidelines that, when followed, help to avoid the common pitfalls.

  • Listen carefully to each other. Try not to interrupt. Respond to, or at least acknowledge, comments made or questions asked by other group members. To do so shows respect.
  • Do not accept confusion passively. If you do not understand the information that someone is presenting, try to paraphrase what was said, or ask someone to help you paraphrase it.
  • Ask for clarification whenever someone uses a word in a way that you find confusing (you will likely help him or her.) The correct use of terminology is an essential part of successful communication in math. If you can say it, you understand it.
  • Do not split up the work. I know it's so tempting...but it leads to SOOO many problems. Everyone should focus their attention on the same thing at the same time. It is much easier to resolve conflicts when group members work together and check for agreement frequently.
  • Make a habit of explaining your reasoning or of "thinking out loud," and ask others to do the same. The process of constructing and refining explanations helps everyone to relate the information being presented to what they already know.
  • Be aware of time constraints. It is appropriate (and important) to ask each other how what you are doing will help your group complete an assignment
  • If your group gets stuck, review and summarize what you've done so far. This process creates new opportunities for group members to ask questions, and often it will reveal important connections that have been overlooked.
  • You should always feel comfortable to switch from talking about math to talking about how your group is working. If you have a concern about how your group is functioning, bring it up. Be direct, honest and calm.
  • When someone raises a concern about your group, listen to it carefully. If you have a problem with his or her problem, be sure to criticize the problem and not the person.

Common Problems and Possible Solutions

There are some problem situations in which a study group might find itself. Occasionally a group just doesn't have any interaction among its members. More frequent is the problem of one student is doing all the work, either because no one else will or because he or she doesn't trust the other group members to do a good job. These problems undermine the whole idea behind study groups and are actually detrimental to learning. Not to over-dramatize this but: BE AWARE!!! Just knowing about what can happen helps to prevent or nip in the bud serious problems.

The following list is offered to increase your awareness of potential problems as well as to offer advice on how to deal with them. We cannot stress enough how important it is to discuss your problems in your group. This is why it is so important to establish an open working environment in which you can be objective about how things are going in your group and comfortable enough to point out problems.

Problem: Lack of interaction

Possible Cause: Lack of Experience with Learning in Study Groups


  • Talk about the problem.
  • As a group, review the section of this booklet entitled, "Your Role in Your Group." You may find that you have not been following one of the guidelines. For example, the impulse to split up the work just kills group interaction.
  • I know this sounds a little corny, but maybe you need to practice how to learn in your groups. Forget about math for the moment and try this activity: choose a really hot issue like abortion or immigration. Let someone in your group make a clear statement about a point of view (it does not have to be their own point of view). Then another person has to counter that opinion without criticizing the first person. Interruptions are not allowed. Go around in a circle until the issue is exhausted.

Possible Cause: You Feel Coerced to Participate


  • Recall that your study group is for your benefit. If your study group isn't serving your needs you should discuss the matter in your group. Try to come up with strategies for making the group work better for you. Remember, your primary obligation is to yourself and to your group members, not to your professor, UMass Lowell, or some set of rules.

Possible Cause: Physical Arrangement


  • Make sure you are all sitting facing each other and no one feels isolated by the seating arrangement. When your meeting starts, mentally put yourself in the place of other group members. Is there anyone who you think might feel cut off from the group?

Problem: Group members are participating unequally

Possible cause: Intolerance of Silence

Some people feel a strong need to fill in moments of silence with speech. In the same way that nature abhors a vacuum, some people abhor silence in conversations.


  • Ask for silence. You could cut into someone's aimless babbling by saying
    "Wait a second! I need some space to think about this!"
  • Bring up the problem carefully with the person one-on-one. Often people who rush into a conversation to keep it going don't realize they are doing it. Explaining that you like long pauses in conversations in order to think could solve the problem.
  • Make sure you are not talking non-stop.

Possible Cause: Dominant Speakers Monopolize the Discussion.


  • Talk to dominating speakers privately. Find out why they are talking so much and whether they are aware of the problem. Often such people are simply outgoing by nature and are unaware of the problem. If they are aware of the problem, usually they feel they have not had their point fully appreciated, or they feel some need to compete. In all three cases, just talking to them in private can reduce the need for them to dominate conversations.

Possible Cause: A Group Member Has No Interest in Speaking.

Some students feel that they learn better by listening than by talking. Others feel that speaking and helping others requires too much effort.


  • Try to draw the person into the conversation without being obvious about it. Occasionally ask for their opinion.
  • Make it clear that you appreciate what the person does contribute.

Problem: A Group Member is Doing All the Work

Possible Cause: Lack of Trust between Members to Work


  • Tell the group member directly that you would like to help. Interrupt the group member with an "excuse me," and voice your ideas. Sit beside the group member and give your opinions about what he or she is doing. Question this group member about what he or she is doing.
  • Talk to the group member in private. Explain how you want to help with the work. After a private discussion with the person, he or she may come to view you as a serious student and open up to your ideas. Demonstrate cooperative learning to this student by involving the rest of the group in the work at hand.
  • If you are the group member who doesn't trust anyone else to do the work, then it is your responsibility to work with your group to make changes so that trust is reestablished. Although you may have a personal goal to complete assignments perfectly, it is a fundamental principle of study groups that everyone in the group understands the material presented in assignments.

Possible Cause: The Rest of Your Group is Slacking Off.


  • Don't be so eager to be the person who asks to get started. Wait until someone else takes the initiative to start the work. It may take a long time for someone else to pick up the reins, but after you do this a couple of times, the others will realize that they can no longer expect you to be the baby-sitter. Let them see the consequences of their inaction.
  • Enlist the help of other members either by asking them for it directly or by pretending you don't understand something. When they see that you can't do all the work on your own, they have to help.
  • Talk about your problem with your group as a whole. Say that you are ticked off (I realize that it takes a lot of courage to say that you are miffed— What if the rest of the group doesn't care that you are ticked off? Then again, maybe the only way for your group to care a little is for you show some emotion. Maybe they do not realize that you are upset.)

Possible Cause: A Group Member is the Brightest Student In the Group.


  • Talk to the brightest student. It may be as simple as saying "It's clear that you really get this stuff. But since we are all supposed to understand, going slower would help."
  • If you think you are head and shoulders above the rest of your group, then your task is particularly challenging. Although it is difficult, you must strike a good balance between contributing your own ideas and listening to others to ensure they understand your, their own, and others' ideas. One of the best ways to learn is by doing. Clearly, your group members need the opportunity to do mathematics. Make sure your zealousness doesn't take that away from them. Also, accept that there are many ways to approach a problem. Even when you know one solution to a problem, there is a lot to be learned from listening to alternative approaches. You also learn more by helping other students understand the material. Professors will tell you that they really began to understand math/stats well when they started to teach it!

Problem: A Group Member is Being Uncooperative.


  • Try talking to the group member in private. He or she may have a problem with how the group is being run but doesn't feel comfortable bringing it up with the whole group.
  • Hold a group meeting and invite your professor to discuss the problem.

Problem: Reinforcing Misconception

It is quite easy for a group of students to mistakenly agree, for example, that when they get zero over zero they can cancel to get one. Or to misread what it means for a function to be continuous. Or to confuse "if" with "only if." Who will be around to point out these errors?


  • Those who are sensitive to the careless use of language must make a practice of requesting clarification. If something doesn't sound right to you, say so. You may actually discover a wide-spread misconception.
  • If you are uncertain about what is correct or incorrect, have someone in the group ask the professor at the end of the next class or during their office hours. Have the phrase repeated to the professor. You could also ask a prof or tutor in OS219A.

Study Groups Locations at UMass Lowell

  • In Olsen Hall, the lobbies in the middle of floors 2 through 5 are large enough for a meeting.
  • Most departments have a lounge for their majors. As long a one member of your study group is a major in a department, it should be appropriate for the whole group to use the lounge for meetings. Mathematics and Chemistry majors share a lounge in Olney 407.
  • CLASS - Second floor of Southwick.
  • Basement of Southwick- good for meetings, particularly at mealtimes.
  • Off - campus
    • Places on University Ave. would love to have you as long as you buy a drink, at least. 
Tue, 22 Dec 2015 05:48:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.uml.edu/Sciences/mathematics/Students/Study-Group-Guide.aspx

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